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Transforming agriculture in South Sudan

From humanitarian aid to a development oriented growth path











Eliste, P., Forget, V., Veillerette, B., Rothe, A.-K., Camara, Y., Cherrou, Y., Ugo, E. and Deng, S. 2022. Transforming agriculture in South Sudan – From humanitarian aid to a development oriented growth path. Rome. FAO and The World Bank




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    Plan of Action for North Sudan. Emergency response and rehabilitation for food and agriculture August 2010 – August 2012 2010
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    After decades of civil conflict and associated political instability, populations throughout North Sudan have seen their livelihoods and production capacity eroded and their ability to cope with human-induced and recurrent natural disasters (floods, droughts, outbreaks of livestock diseases) worn away. There have been considerable efforts to respond to the protracted crisis, with the international humanitarian response reaching USD 1.3 billion in 2009. Despite this, millions of people continue t o face severe and chronic food insecurity. With between 60 and 80 percent of the working-age population relying on agriculture to meet their food and income needs, the sector’s importance to economic recovery and the consolidation of peace in North Sudan cannot be underestimated. In this Plan of Action (PoA), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) outlines its emergency and rehabilitation programme for North Sudan in 2010–12. It does not include FAO’s long-term develop ment programme, but is designed to complement the Organization’s ongoing development activities, as well as the interventions of United Nations agencies, Government and other partners which aim to mitigate the effects of recurrent crises while addressing their root causes. The programme relies heavily on a disaster risk management approach to the complex situation in North Sudan. This approach focuses on emergency relief, such as replacing lost assets or restoring livelihoods, as well as on earl y efforts as part of risk reduction that protect and sustain livelihoods. Such interventions can often be more effective than those delayed until people are in crisis. Given the complex and protracted nature of the crisis in North Sudan, FAO’s relief and recovery programming is enhanced by interventions that not only restore, but also protect and promote livelihoods in food and agriculture. Thus, the overall purpose of the PoA for North Sudan is to improve preparedness and to make short-term res ponses in food and agriculture more effective. The proposed priorities in this PoA will help FAO, its counterparts and partners to meet shortterm needs in ways that strengthen the resilience of communities and lead to more effective and longer-term recovery. The approach is reflected in the six key areas of focus as proposed in this PoA, based on an analysis of the current situation, the main factors triggering food insecurity and assessments identifying and targeting vulnerable groups. These ar e: (i) dwindling agricultural production; (ii) reduced livestock production and productivity; (iii) the adverse effect of climate change and the conflicts created over the use of scarce natural resources and longer-term issues such as land access; (iv) economic factors that affect the livelihoods of the various groups, as well as the creation of alternative livelihood resources; (v) the need for institutional strengthening; and (vi) coordination of the international community and the assistance provided. The above priorities have been expanded into twelve sectoral programmes that detail activities to be implemented by FAO in North Sudan to achieve expected outcomes and address the specific needs identified in three regions: (i) Greater Darfur (comprising North, South and West Darfur); (ii) the Transitional Areas (Abyei, Blue Nile and Southern Kordofan); and (iii) Eastern Sudan (Gedaref, Kassala and Red Sea states). The total budget for the PoA 2010–2012 is USD 45 056 468. The PoA signa ls FAO’s adoption of a more programmatic approach in its emergency and rehabilitation activities in North Sudan. The document has used a programme cycle management approach to present the situation analysis, planned response and monitoring and evaluation framework. Through this PoA and other efforts, FAO is attempting to build greater programmatic coherence with internal and external partners, in line with national food security plans and related strategy and United Nations system programming fr amework. Fundamentally, this PoA is a dynamic programming tool that may need to be adjusted, according to contingency plans, when and as the food security situation evolves in North Sudan.
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    Pakistan Floods. Rapid Response Plan September 2011 2011
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    Torrential monsoon rains have triggered severe flooding in Pakistan, primarily in Sindh Province. Before the monsoon season began, forecasts predicted 10% below normal rains for Sindh and the southern parts of the country for the 2011 monsoon season. However, by 10 August, heavy rains began affecting districts of southern Sindh and extended to the northern regions of the province and adjoining areas of south Punjab and north-eastern Balochistan. While this spell lasted till mid-August, anothe r more debilitating and sustained rain spell heavily affected areas across the entire Sindh Province from the end of August until 14 September. Concurrent impact in adjoining vast areas of Balochistan has resulted in serious humanitarian consequences including in South Punjab. In Sindh, the central and southern districts have been the worst affectedF1F. These rains caused widespread breaches in the agricultural and saline water canals, particularly in the Left Bank Outfall Drain, which exa cerbated flood impact in Badin, Mirpurkhas and Tharparkar districts, among others. Continued rains have seriously impeded delivery of emergency services and flood impacted mitigation works. Outflow of the draining flood water is compromised due to poor infrastructure and lack of maintenance of the drainage routes. Some parts of Karachi and Hyderabad have also experienced urban flooding. Flood waters are likely to stagnate in most of the affected regions for the foreseeable future. As the monsoon season continues, the impact upon the population is intensifying with 5.4 million people affected to date. In Sindh, in particular, the concentration is most severe and all 23 districts have been affected to some degree. It is expected that the population will continue to be uprooted from their homes to seek refuge in the short term as more areas are affected. While some are housed in Government appointed shelters, more seek higher ground along bunds and roads. In Balochistan, five districts are affected and notified (considered seriously affected by the national authorities).F2 The Government of Pakistan, through the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) and utilising the Armed Forces‟ logistical capacity, has taken the lead in responding to the disaster with the deployment of rescue and life-saving relief operations. Responses are being adapted to the emerging situation as rains across Sindh and the southern part of the country are exceptional in their quantum and spatial impact. Vast tracts which include traditional camp sites are flooded. Utilizing the preparations made through the contingency planning process, shelter locations were identified, search and rescue capacities reinforced and mass communication schemes devised. These contingency plans were activated to alert population of potential flooding and to enable some to move to shelters in advance of the floods.F3F While the authorities are continuing to mobilize relief items for the af fected population, access issues due to damaged infrastructure and continuing heavy rain are hampering the delivery of aid. Over the medium to long-term relief, the food security situation in the country is likely to be affected by the significant loss of crops, agricultural land, and livestock. While the Government (NDMA and the Provincial Disaster Management Authorities) will lead the relief and recovery activities in flood-affected areas, the humanitarian community has been asked to suppo rt the response by covering gaps where the needs exceed the government‟s response capacity. In response to the Government‟s request for assistance on 6 September 2011, the Humanitarian Country Team has developed this Rapid Response Plan as a strategic plan to address the needs of the population in support to the Government‟s relief interventions. This plan will follow two phases: • The first phase focuses on critical needs of the severely affected families in the areas of food security, safe d rinking water and purification materials, sanitation and hygiene, emergency health services, tents and shelter kits, cooking sets, mosquito nets, and other non-food items along with critical early recovery, community restoration and capacity building needs. • The second phase will provide a revised plan based on data collected from needs assessments. This Rapid Response Plan seeks US$F4F356.7 million to enable United Nations agencies, nongovernmental organizations and the International Org anization for Migration to support the Government of Pakistan in addressing the needs of flood-affected families for six months. The plan will be revised within 30 days to more accurately reflect humanitarian needs as the situation evolves and additional assessments are completed which include early recovery strategies for helping people recover and rebuild their lives.
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    South Sudan: The impact of conflict on food security and livelihoods
    DIEM-Impact report, January 2024
    2024
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    Food insecurity in South Sudan is driven by cascading shocks including conflict and insecurity, macro-economic crisis caused by the depreciation of the local currency, high inflation, conflict in the Sudan, climatic shocks (floods and dry spells), climate- and conflict-induced population displacement, persistent low agricultural production levels, and the cumulative effects of prolonged years of asset depletion that continue to erode the coping capacities of households and the loss of livelihoods. This DIEM-Impact assessment adopted qualitative research approaches and enabled an understanding of experiences, attitudes, behaviours and interactions in relation to conflict and food insecurity, and the impacts of floods in locations where they have been prevalent.The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) established Data in Emergencies Impact (DIEM-Impact) to provide a granular and rapid understanding of the impact of large-scale hazards on agriculture and agricultural livelihoods using a variety of assessment methodologies, including primary and secondary information, remote sensing technologies, and FAO’s damage and loss methodology. DIEM-Impact presents a regularly updated and accessible state of food insecurity in fragile environments and helps underpin FAO's programming based on evidence.

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