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Agricultural Cooperatives in Eurasia

Policy Studies on Rural Transition No. 2014-3








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    Land Reform in Eastern Europe - Western CIS, Transcaucuses, Balkans, and EU Accession Countries 2001
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    The former socialist countries of Eastern Europe (that is, Europe east of Germany and west of the Urals, but including all of Russia) began a transition to a market economy in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s. This paper looks at one aspect of that transition: the transition from state ownership to private ownership of agricultural land and the accompanying transition to a land market for agricultural land.
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    Document
    Cooperatives in the CIS and Georgia: Overview of Legislation
    Policy Studies on Rural Transition No. 2014-2
    2014
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    Cooperatives in agriculture and in other sectors are usually created by grassroots users to overcome market failures, which are manifested in unwillingness of private business entrepreneurs to provide services in areas that they judge unprofitable or, alternatively, in unfair exploitation of the users by private businesses through monopolistic practices. Best-practice world experience suggests that farmers’ service cooperatives provide the most effective way of improving the access of small farm ers to market services in both situations. International Cooperative Alliance (ICA) defines a cooperative as an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise (ICA, 2013). The persons who voluntarily unite to form a cooperative are usually referred to as members or member-owners. In this study, the cooperative laws in all 12 CIS countries (including Ge orgia) are reviewed and their compatibility with universal cooperative principles and actual practices in the West is examined.
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    Fisheries and aquaculture in Georgia: current status and planning 2005
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    In 2003 the Government of Georgia requested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to provide technical assistance for the sustainable development and management of the fishery sector in the country. FAO, through its Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP), approved project TCP/GEO/2904(A), entitled: “Strengthening the Capacity of the Department of Fisheries to Support Fisheries Sector Rehabilitationâ€Â. The aim of this Fisheries Circular is first to inform those i nterested in fisheries and aquaculture in Georgia about the current situation with regard to fishery resources and their utilization in the country. Second, it attempts to provide an example of a consultative and participative policy and legal framework development process. The approach used in the preparation of the Master Plan for Fishery Sector Development in Georgia (2005–2020), the Action Plan for Fishery Sector Management and Development in Georgia (2005–2008), and the Law of Georgia for F isheries and Aquaculture could also be applicable in other countries in transition that have a relatively small fishery sector. The documents presented here are considered as final versions and cleared as such by the Department of Fisheries (DoF) of the Ministry of Agriculture of Georgia. All the documents are also available in the Georgian language from the DoF in Tbilisi. At the time of publication, the DoF is steering the approval process of the Master Plan, Action Plan and Law within t he Government of Georgia and has already started to implement the Action Plan. The Review of the Current Status of Fisheries Resources and Utilization in Georgia is presented in the first part of this Fisheries Circular. The second part contains the final version of the Master Plan for Fishery Sector Development in Georgia, 2005–2020, while the third part provides the Action Plan for Fishery Sector Management and Development in Georgia, 2005–2008. The final draft version of the Law of Geor gia for Fisheries and Aquaculture is presented in the fourth part. The last part contains a summary report of the proceedings and recommendations of the Workshop on Fisheries Management and Development (Batumi, 19 August 2004), the Workshop on Fisheries Legislation and Management, (Tbilisi, 11 and 18 February 2005), and the National Conference on Fisheries Management and Development in Georgia (Tbilisi, 15–16 June 2005).

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