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From reacting to preventing pandemics: Building Animal Health and Wildlife Systems for One Health in East Asia and Pacific










World Bank and FAO. 2022. From Reacting to Preventing Pandemics - Building Animal Health and Wildlife Systems for One Health. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank and FAO. https://doi. org/10.1596/37447. 



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    Policy brief
    From reacting to preventing pandemics: Building Animal Health Wildlife Systems for One Health in East Asia and Pacific
    Executive Summary
    2022
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    Investing in One Health – cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary coordination and collaboration across the human health, animal health, and environmental health sectors – is crucial for maintaining healthy agricultural and food systems and addressing global health security risks. Such action can reduce the threat of future pandemics through upstream preventive actions, early detection, and agile responses to zoonotic and emerging infectious diseases outbreaks, coupled with measures for promoting food safety, includinganti-microbial resistance. This regional review, conducted jointly by the World Bank and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, assesses the socioeconomic impacts of zoonotic diseases and epidemics across the East Asia and Pacific region, providing a background on why emerging infectious diseases are occurring more frequently in this region. This review looks at the benefits of using a risk-based approach, assesses the management of animal and wildlife health and the ability to identify and respond to emerging threats and protect the health, agricultural production, and ecosystem services. It provides recommendations on priority activities to be undertaken, and offers governments and their development partners the evidence and analysis needed to make more and better investments in wildlife systems and animal health to improve global health security.
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    Policy brief
    Reducing pandemic risks at source: Wildlife, environment and One Health foundations in East and South Asia
    Executive Summary
    2022
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    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are infections associated with new or significantly-expanded geographic scope or spread of zoonotic, vector-borne, and drug-resistant pathogens. The majority of EIDs have animal origins, and of those, the most recent EIDs are tied to wildlife. They are also increasing in frequency, with reoccurring outbreaks causing epidemics and pandemics exacting tremendous health and economic costs on individuals, nations, and the global economy. Strategies to reduce EID risks and better prevent future events from happening, need to comprehensively include wildlife - and the multiple interactions between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans - in a holistic way. ‘One Health’ addresses this, with the goal of achieving optimal health outcomes while recognizing the interconnections between people, animals, plants, and their shared environments. In this report, we explore the root causes of pathogen spillover and disease emergence from wildlife to humans in East and South Asia, we review existing strengths and gaps of One Health systems, and provide recommendations to improve their performance by better including wildlife considerations. We describe human practices that increase exposure to pathogens, and specific, tangible actions to reduce risks along the chain, prioritizing the wildlife trade, food systems, and the environment. The report argues that investing in prevention of wildlife-originated human EIDs at source is extremely cost-effective, and is thus to be viewed as a public good, with benefits within and across national boundaries. The cost of inaction, by contrast, is very high.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Reducing pandemics risks at source: Wildlife, environment and One Health foundations in East and South Asia 2022
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    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are infections associated with new or significantly-expanded geographic scope or spread of zoonotic, vector-borne, and drug-resistant pathogens. The majority of EIDs have animal origins, and of those, the most recent EIDs are tied to wildlife. They are also increasing in frequency, with recurring outbreaks causing epidemics and pandemics exacting tremendous health and economic costs on individuals, nations, and the global economy. Strategies to reduce EID risks and better prevent future events from happening, need to comprehensively include wildlife - and the multiple interactions between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans - in a holistic way. ‘One Health’ addresses this, with the goal of achieving optimal health outcomes while recognizing the interconnections between people, animals, plants, and their shared environments. In this report, we explore the root causes of pathogen spillover and disease emergence from wildlife to humans in East and South Asia, we review existing strengths and gaps of One Health systems, and provide recommendations to improve their performance by better including wildlife considerations. We describe human practices that increase exposure to pathogens, and specific, tangible actions to reduce risks along the chain, prioritizing the wildlife trade, food systems, and the environment. The report argues that investing in prevention of wildlife-originated human EIDs at source is extremely cost-effective, and is thus to be viewed as a public good, with benefits within and across national boundaries. The cost of inaction, by contrast, is very high.

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