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Training manual on the artificial propagation of carps

Second revised edition. Budapest, FAO REU








Horváth, L., Tamás, G., Coche, A.G., Kovács, E., Moth-Poulsen, T. & Woynarovich, A. 2015. Training manual on the artificial propagation of carps. A handout for on-farm training workshops on artificial propagation of common carp and Chinese major carps in Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia. Second revised edition. Budapest, FAO REU. 31 pp.


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    FAO has always played a leading role in the publication of practice-oriented technical papers and training materials on fisheries and fish cultures. One of the objectives of producing this huge wealth of ready-to-use technical information is to support the sustainable development of fish production all over the world. Following these principles, two very successful, richly illustrated practical technical guides were produced in the mid-1980s on the mass production of eggs, early fry,1 advanced f ry and fingerlings of common carp. Owing to profound political, social and economic changes, the production of fish ponds and small water reservoirs in many countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and in the Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA) has declined considerably in recent decades. In order to restart and increase carp production in these regions, hands-on training courses supported with handouts has proved useful in the practical training and self-education of concerned and interested f ish farmers. The present handout builds on fish seed production of carps, an earlier FAO publication.2 The original watercolour illustrations used in this publication are the work of László Horváth, father of the senior author. Although the set of these pictures is practically complete, in order to prepare an even more understandable technical reference, additional black and white illustrations of another publications, as well as tables and texts, have been inserted where sources were correctly indexed and listed under References.
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    Feeding and feed management of Indian major carps in Andhra Pradesh, India 2013
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    This study reviews the aquaculture of Indian major carps, rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mrigal (Cirrhinus cirrhosus) with special reference to current feeding and feed management practices in Andhra Pradesh, India. The study is based on a survey of 106 farmers from four regions in Andhra Pradesh (Kolleru, Krishna, West Godavari, and Nellore). The study was undertaken between December 2009 to July 2010. Kolleru and the surrounding districts of Krishna and West Godavari ar e the primary culture areas. In Nellore district, Indian major carp culture is practiced at a lower intensity to that practiced in Kolleru. In East Godavari district, Indian major carps are primarily cultured in polyculture systems with either tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) or freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). While the study primarily focused on the feed management practices associated with Indian major carp production, management practices that are used under polycultur e conditions with other species groups were also assessed. The study revealed that mash feed was the most popular and widely used feed type. De-oiled rice bran was used as the principal feed ingredient followed by groundnut cake and cotton seed cake. All the farmers reported using de-oiled rice bran, followed by groundnut cake (56 percent farmers), cotton seed cake (40 percent), raw rice bran (30 percent) and other mash feed ingredients. The poor quality of the mash feed ingredients, especially the de-oiled rice bran, groundnut cake, and cotton seed cake was an important issue of concern to the farmers. Commercially manufactured pellet feeds were used by 33 percent of the farmers to compliment their mash feeds, with the majority electing to use sinking pellets. Since 2007, there has been a marked increase in the use of commercially manufactured aquafeeds, most notably for the large scale production of the striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. Grow-out f armers feeding mash feeds used variants of a bag feeding method known as rope and pole feeding. In Nellore district some farmers practiced hapa feeding, while in East Godavari district, farmers fed fish in both the culture ponds (bag feeding) and hapas. Tiger shrimp or freshwater prawns were fed in these ponds using broadcast feeding methods. In the nursery and rearing ponds, the commonly used feed ingredients included groundnut cake, de-oiled rice bran and raw rice bran. The most co mmon feeding practice was broadcast feeding. Rohu broodstock that were collected during the breeding season were fed in a similar manner to the fish in the grow-out production systems. Catla broodstock was segregated from the other culture species, and fed a diet comprising soybean cake, dried fish, and a mineral mixture. Constraints to Indian major carp production were identified, and research and development needs characterized.
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    This technical paper is a basic guide to carp pond polyculture practicable in CEE and CCA countries. It provides an overview on the guiding principles, aspects and tasks, and presents the most applicable production techniques and patterns of carp polyculture. For further reading and more in-depth information on the suggested techniques and technologies, it also includes a list of relevant FAO publications. It is expected that this publication will help identify resources and contribute to the successful planning and realization of fish production by those fish pond owners and operators who need to strengthen and improve their knowledge on the subject.

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