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Monitoring and Surveillance of Cereals Pests, Diseases and Weeds

Report from Central Asia 2012







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    Since 2011, the FAO Subregional Office for Central Asia (FAO-SEC), in close collaboration with the International Winter Wheat Improvement Programme (IWWIP), CIMMYT and ICARDA, and with the support of national consultants in the field of plant protection has provided technical assistance to the countries in the region on the monitoring of diseases, pests and weeds in cereal crops. The main purpose of this work is to collect information about the prevalence of major diseases, pests and weeds, as w ell as identification of varieties resistant to diseases, particularly to aggressive races of stem rust. The first results of the monitoring of diseases, pests and weeds in cereal crops were discussed at the Regional Experts Consultation Meeting held during 27-28 February 2013 in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Following the meeting, it was decided to prepare unified guidelines for the monitoring of diseases, pests and weeds in cereal crops.
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    Global review of forest pests and diseases
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    Insect pests, diseases and other biotic agents have considerable impacts on forests and the forest sector. They can adversely affect tree growth and the yield of wood and non-wood products. Damage caused by forest pests can significantly reduce wildlife habitat thereby reducing local biodiversity and species richness. They can alter natural forest landscapes by decimating one or more tree species as has been observed in eastern American forests as a result of chestnut blight and throughout the Northern Hemisphere because of Dutch elm disease. Some pests have necessitated changes in management regimes often forcing forest managers to switch to alternative tree species in plantations; for example, the failed attempts in many parts of the world to establish mahogany plantations because of the presence of mahogany shoot borers ( Hypsipyla spp.). Pathogens may also limit the sites on which species can be gro wn successfully outside their natural range as has been experienced with red band needle blight (Mycosphaerella pini) and western gall rust (Endocronartium harknessii)infecting Pinus radiata.
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    Field guide to the control of warmwater fish diseases in Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia 2019
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    Due to the recent rapid development of freshwater aquaculture in the Caucasus Region, many new and previously known fish diseases have appeared. One of the most prominent features of the region’s aquaculture is that it is mostly based on the rearing of cyprinids, mainly the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), as well as a few other predatory fish species. As a result, this book focuses on the diseases that affect these and other important warmwater fish species. Although this field guide covers the diseases of warmwater fish of Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia, it also draws upon the extensive knowledge base available for the countries of Central Europe and the former Soviet Union, as well as recent research findings from the Islamic Republic of Iran and from Turkey. The major warmwater fish species cultured in the region and their health status are discussed, and two major categories of disease are recognized: biotic and abiotic diseases. Although there are numerous biotic diseases, abiotic factors (e.g. lack of oxygen, temperature, feeding mistakes) remain the main cause of losses in aquaculture. The best practices for the field and laboratory examination of disease outbreaks are reviewed, and the importance of accurate and detailed data recording emphasized. Prevention as a key factor in avoiding the spread of disease is highlighted, and actions to prevent the spread of diseases between farms, regions, countries and continents are discussed. Possible methods for the treatment of each disease are reviewed; unfortunately, the chemicals available for use in aquaculture are now rather limited, as many of them are hazardous to both the environment and human health. Of the viral diseases discussed, spring viraemia of carp (SVC) and koi herpesvirus (KHV) pose the greatest threats to the world’s carp populations. Of the bacterial diseases, ulcer disease is still the main problem in carp culture, while among the parasites, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, the cause of white spot disease, is among the most important. Exotic parasites such as various Thelohanellus species, as well as tapeworms belonging to the genera Bothriocephalus and Khawia, are responsible for a considerable amount of damage. Some diseases of unknown aetiology are also discussed.

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