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Restrictions on antimicrobial use in animals producing meat, milk and eggs, Viet Nam








Carrique-Mas, J.j. et al. Restrictions on antimicrobial use in animal production, Viet Nam. Bulletin of the World Health Organization; Type: Perspectives Article ID: BLT.22.289187


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    Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Plant Agriculture: A One Health Perspective 2022
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    Bactericides, fungicides, and other pesticides play an important role in the management of plant diseases. However, their use can result in residues on plants and in the environment, with potentially detrimental consequences. The use of streptomycin, oxytetracycline, copper-based products, and some fungicides is correlated with increased resistance among plant pathogens to these agents. Likewise, the recent rise in the incidence of environmental triazole fungicide-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus, the cause of aspergillosis in humans, has caused concern, particularly in Europe. Through horizontal gene transfer, genes can be exchanged among a variety of bacteria in the plant production environment, including phytopathogens, soil bacteria, and zoonotic bacteria that are occasionally present in that environment and in the food chain. Through mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer, co-resistance, cross-resistance, and gene up-regulation, resistance to one compound may confer resistance and multi-drug resistance to other similar, or even very dissimilar, compounds. Given the global rise in antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) organisms, and their effects on plant, animal, and human health, the prudent use of pesticides is required to maintain their effectiveness for food security and sustainable production, and to minimize the emergence and transmission of AMR organisms from horticultural sources.
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    Joint FAO/OIE/WHO Expert Workshop on Non-Human Antimicrobial Usage and Antimicrobial Resistance: Scientific assessment
    Geneva, December 1 – 5, 2003
    2003
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    Antimicrobial agents are essential drugs for human and animal health and welfare. Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health concern that is impacted by both human and non-human antimicrobial usage. Antimicrobial agents are used in food animals, including from aquaculture, companion animals and horticulture to treat or prevent disease. Antimicrobial agents are sometimes used in food animals to promote growth. The types of antimicrobials used are frequently the same as, or closely rela ted to, antimicrobials used in humans.

    The expert workshop concluded that there is clear evidence of adverse human health consequences due to resistant organisms resulting from non-human usage of antimicrobials. These consequences include infections that would not have otherwise occurred, increased frequency of treatment failures (in some cases death) and increased severity of infections, as documented for instance by fluoroquinolone resistant human Salmonella infections. Evidence shows th at the amount and pattern of non-human usage of antimicrobials impact on the occurrence of resistant bacteria in animals and on food commodities and thereby human exposure to these resistant bacteria. The foodborne route is the major transmission pathway for resistant bacteria and resistance genes from food animals to humans, but other routes of transmission exist. There is much less data available on the public health impact of antimicrobial usage in aquaculture, horticulture and companion an imals.

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    Surveillance data of the Indian Network for Fishery and Animal Antimicrobial Resistance (INFAAR)
    An analytical report 2019–2022
    2024
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    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is now recognized as a major global public health problem which has been aggravated by the irrational use of antimicrobial agents in human and animal health as well as the presence of these agents in the environment. AMR in animal pathogens makes disease treatments ineffective, increases the severity of the disease, reduces productivity and leads to economic losses. In addition, more than half the quantity of antimicrobials used in animals/fish is excreted as waste contaminating soil, water and the environment. This also contributes to the emergence and spread of AMR through selection pressure on microorganisms in the environment. Besides, antimicrobial usage (AMU) can lead to presence of antimicrobial residues in edible animal/fish products which could become a public health risk. Understanding the dynamics of AMR and its surveillance can only be done through quality laboratory services. Laboratory-based surveillance is an integral part of Objective 2 of the National Action Plan of India (2017–2021), which was developed in alignment with the Global Action Plan for AMR. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), with technical assistance from FAO, has established a network of its institutions, the Indian Network for Fishery and Animal Antimicrobial Resistance (INFAAR), to generate nationally representative surveillance data on AMR.

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