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Strengthening Capacities for the Prevention of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in Eritrea - TCP/ERI/3607









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    Project
    Strengthening Capacities for the Prevention of Fall Armyworm (FAW) in Eritrea - TCP/ERI/3610 2020
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    Pest and disease outbreaks threaten to harm crop production and pastures Eritrea, where approximately 75 percent of the population relies on agriculture, animal husbandry and fishing for their livelihood. The country has dealt with many migratory pests in the past, including the African Armyworm, locusts, and grain-eating birds, all of which have caused significant yield and pasture losses. In 2016, the Fall Armyworm (FAW) appeared in Africa, and it rapidly spread to 32 different countries on the continent. When FAW outbreaks were reported in Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya and neighboring Ethiopia, concern regarding the spread of the pest to Eritrea grew, owing to the fact that it has the same agro-ecological conditions as these other countries. The FAW attacks many of Eritrea’s major crops, including maize, millet, sorghum, barley and wheat. Outbreaks of FAW can result in grain losses of between 25 and 75 percent, and they can damage vast rangelands for livestock production. Because the FAW presents such a serious threat to food security, economic activity and livelihoods, this project was designed to mitigate its effects through the strengthening of capacities to detect, manage and control the pest in Eritrea. It is important to note that during project formulation, the FAW had not yet arrived in Eritrea; therefore, the main focus of the project design was prevention. That said, the pest was detected in the country in 2018, but it was successfully managed thanks to the interventions of this project.
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    Article
    Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection at the Wildlife–Livestock Interface in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem, 2015–2019 2021
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    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease of goats and sheep that occurs in Africa, the Middle East and Asia with a severe impact on livelihoods and livestock trade. Many wild artiodactyls are susceptible to PPR virus (PPRV) infection, and some outbreaks have threatened endangered wild populations. The role of wild species in PPRV epidemiology is unclear, which is a knowledge gap for the Global Strategy for the Control and Eradication of PPR. These studies aimed to investigate PPRV infection in wild artiodactyls in the Greater Serengeti and Amboseli ecosystems of Kenya and Tanzania. Out of 132 animals purposively sampled in 2015–2016, 19.7% were PPRV seropositive by ID Screen PPR competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA; IDvet, France) from the following species: African buffalo, wildebeest, topi, kongoni, Grant’s gazelle, impala, Thomson’s gazelle, warthog and gerenuk, while waterbuck and lesser kudu were seronegative. In 2018–2019, a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected African buffalo and Grant’s gazelle herds was conducted. The weighted estimate of PPRV seroprevalence was 12.0% out of 191 African buffalo and 1.1% out of 139 Grant’s gazelles. All ocular and nasal swabs and faeces were negative by PPRV real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Investigations of a PPR-like disease in sheep and goats confirmed PPRV circulation in the area by rapid detection test and/or RT-qPCR. These results demonstrated serological evidence of PPRV infection in wild artiodactyl species at the wildlife–livestock interface in this ecosystem where PPRV is endemic in domestic small ruminants. Exposure to PPRV could be via spillover from infected small ruminants or from transmission between wild animals, while the relatively low seroprevalence suggests that sustained transmission is unlikely. Further studies of other major wild artiodactyls in this ecosystem are required, such as impala, Thomson’s gazelle and wildebeest.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Global Strategy for the Control and Eradication of PPR 2015
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    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease of sheep and goats caused by a Morbillivirus closely related to rinderpest virus and is considered to be one of the most damaging livestock diseases in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. Bearing in mind the strong negative impact that PPR can have on food security and the livelihoods of poor farmers, the main keepers of sheep and goats, the Global Framework for the Progressive Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases (GF-TADs) Global Steering Committee in 2012, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations’ (FAO) Council and the Committee on Agriculture (COAG) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), in the form of a Resolution of the World Assembly of Delegates of the OIE in 2014, have all recommended the development of a PPR Global Control and Eradication Strategy (hereinafter named ‘Global Strategy’) and expressed a strong willingness to address the animal health problems in a systematic way, dea ling with horizontal as well as more disease-specific (vertical) issues.

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