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Glossary of terms for agricultural insurance and rural finance








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    Financing social insurance schemes for agricultural workers in the Middle East and North Africa 2022
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    Some of the main barriers preventing the expansion of social insurance (SI) schemes to agricultural workers(AWs) in the region are of a financial nature. Usually, SI schemes rely on the co-responsibility in financing between employers and employees, base contribution values on regular wages, and only accept monthly contributions in cash. This structure excludes AWs who are self employed or do not have stable contracts with their employers, and those with seasonal, low, irregular or non-cash incomes. This research report aims to understand the main financial barriers that may hinder the coverage of AWs by SI schemes in the MENA region, and which strategies can help address them.
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    Report of the Expert Workshop on Guidelines for Micro-finance, Credit and Insurance for Small-scale Fisheries in Asia, Bangkok, Thailand, 7-9 May 2019
    Bangkok, Thailand, 7-9 May 2019
    2019
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    The Expert Workshop on Guidelines for Micro-finance, Credit and Insurance for Small-scale Fisheries in Asia was held in Bangkok, Thailand in the period 7-9 May 2019. Rural finance, insurance and fisheries experts from Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Philippines, Thailand, UK, Canada and the USA met to discuss ways to improve the access to financial services for small-scale fishers in Asia. The workshop aimed to discuss successful finance and insurance programmes in Asia for small-scale fishers, finalize practical guidelines in support of better access to financial services, and design a capacity building programme for increasing the provision of finance and insurance services to small-scale fisheries. The workshop was attended by 32 experts and was organized by the Asia-Pacific Rural and Agricultural Credit Association (APRACA) in close collaboration with FAO. The insurance and credit guidelines prepared will facilitate the implementation of the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Poverty Eradication and Food Security (SSF Guidelines), as well as contribute towards achievement of Sustainable Development Goal 14. Access to finance and insurance services will enable the small-scale fishers to invest in more responsible fishing operations and technologies, reduce overfishing, contribute to fisheries management and implement climate change adaptation measures. The micro-finance, credit and insurance guidelines for small-scale fisheries have been endorsed by APRACA members in June 2019, and implementation throughout the Asian region is promoted.
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    Climate Change, Food Security and Insurance Systems for Family Farming
    Brazil case: Climate, income and price insurance programs.
    2016
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    Family Farming Insurance Disasters resulting from weather changes cause the greatest economic impacts on the region (70% of emergencies are weather-related). Annual costs of approximately 2.2% of the GDP (base year 2010) are estimated to face disasters, in lack of climate change adaptation actions. The global climate risk index estimated based on information from 1995 to 2014, indicates that 4 out of the 10 countries with the highest risk index are in Latin America and the Caribbean: Honduras, H aiti, Nicaragua and Guatemala. In the region, one third of the population lives in high risk zones due to exposure to geological and hydro-meteorological threats. Climate change is also increasing the dispersal area of plant and animal plagues and diseases, in addition to increasing the probability of outbreaks and intensified effects. Through the enactment of Law 5,969 of 1973, Brazil established the Agricultural and Livestock Activity Guarantee Program (PROAGRO) to protect farmers from rural loan obligations. In 2004, it created “PROAGRO Mais”, for producers associated to the National Program for the Strengthening of Family Farming (PRONAF). Currently, PROAGRO protects medium-sized farmers (PRONAMP), and PROAGRO Mais protects PRONAF beneficiaries. PROAGRO Mais guarantees, in cost operations, up to 80% of the expected gross income, covering financing and up to R$ 20 thousand of the estimated net income; and for investment operations, coverage limit is 95% of the expected gross inco me, deducting the coverage by cost operations. In cost operations, PRONAF beneficiary participation is mandatory, while in investment operations, it is optional. Harvest Guarantee In Latin America and the Caribbean, family farming is very important for the food security and nutrition of all population. Approximately 81% of agricultural endeavours correspond to family farmers and, depending on the country, they provide 27% to 67% of the food. Family farming generates 57% to 77% of agricultural j obs in the region, so its is a very important job-generation sector. To continue boosting food security and sustainable development, family farming has three important challenges: 1) to produce more assorted and nutritional foods, 2) to continue creating safer and more stable jobs, and 3) to favour the appropriate use of resources used in production. Harvest Guarantee is a program that supports family farmers below the poverty line, with emphasis on the Brazilian Semiarid Zone, where losses due to drought are frequent. It was established by Law 10,420, of April 10, 2002. Price Guarantee for Family Farming This is a Federal Government program that offers the family farmer with PRONAF loan, a protection against price reductions. Currently, 51 products have a guarantee price. Rural population in the region lives in an extremely precarious situation because the poorest population plus the population in economic vulnerability situation correspond to 80% of the total rural population. Many family farmers in this percentage have their livelihoods depending greatly on environmental factors and natural resources.

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