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Analysis of food consumption behavior by Japanese households








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    Book (stand-alone)
    ANALYSIS OF THE FOOD CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOUR OF JAPANESE HOUSEHOLDS 2003
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    The objectives of this research are to analyse food consumption patterns in Japan and to conduct an econometric analysis of Japan’s food demand structure. Two specific food demand studies were undertaken for this report: 1) the demand for 11 aggregate food groups, including rice; and 2) the demand for seven meats. The basic conclusion of the paper suggests that rice is consumed in Japan as a normal good, contrary to the results of previous studies. In addition, Marshallian uncompensated and Hick sian compensated own-price elasticities for rice are highly elastic, while the own-price elasticity for meat is relatively price-inelastic. Results from the meat model show that meat expenditure and price elasticities are very similar to those of Western nations. These results show that the Japanese meat consumption pattern has become Westernized. This paper makes a significant contribution to the literature on the consumption patterns.
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    Estimating Food Consumption Patterns by Reconciling Food Balance Sheets and Household Budget Surveys
    dec/14
    2014
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    Food Balance Sheets (FBS) are one of the most important sources of data on food availability for human consumption. This paper presents a method to improve the information on food consumption patterns of FBS by using national household budget surveys (HBS). In this paper, food commodities are categorized into 16 major food groups. For each food group, the contribution to the overall caloric intake is represented in shares. Item group shares of 64 surveys from 51 low and middle income countries are compared with shares from country-specific FBS. Given the countries represented in the data, the analysis evaluates food consumption of over 3 billion persons worldwide. A model based on a cross-entropy measure of information has been developed in order to reconcile aggregate food consumption patterns suggested by FBS and HBS. The latter model accounts for the fact that data from both data sources are prone to measurement errors. Overall, the results of the reconciliation suggest that aver age consumption of cereals, eggs, fish products, pulses and vegetables are likely to be underestimated in FBS, while fruits, meat, milk and sugar products are likely to be overestimated in FBS. Even though the suggested changes in average food consumption are moderate, the results imply considerable relative changes in the aggregate consumption of single food groups. Furthermore, the results imply that the aggregate consumption of fats is 2% higher than currently assumed. The updated consumption patterns provide valuable information from an agro-industrial perspective. Differences in updated consumption pattern with respect to the original FBS might suggest a re-evaluation of FBS elements of the value chain, starting from production and ending at food losses.
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    Does better nutrition cause economic growth? The efficiency cost of hunger revisited 2002
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    This paper considers the impact of the nutritional status on the growth rate of real GDP per capita. In particular, a panel of 114 countries’ Dietary Energy Supply (DES) per capita from 1961 to 1999 is combined with the latest release of real GDP per capita data from the World Bank (World Development Indicators, 2001). Besides pooled regressions, we also divided at the sample into a 10-year and 5-year interval in order to investigate the medium and short run effects. Moreover, we compared and co ntrasted across country groups within each of the above time frames to discern cross-sectional performance difference. We found that on average the long run real GDP per capita growth rate can be increased by 0.5 percentage point if DES is increased by 500 kcal/day. However, for a subgroup of developing countries (East and Southeast Asia) we found this number could be four times larger, while in most of the other developing countries this effect is either negative or negligible. The short run ef fect is more likely to be insignificant or negative than long run effect. We believe this could be due to the dynamic interaction between the short run population growth effect and the long run productivity effect. These results are robust to various econometric modeling procedures as well as to the identity critique. Since this nutrition trap is a short run effect, any policy shall aim to reduce hunger for the long run. This study shows that having chronic hunger in the country is costly in ter ms of economic growth in the long run.

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