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Preliminary Results of the Hydroacoustic Survey conducted on Lake Kariba - September 2014

GCP/RAF/466/EC SmartFish Project











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    Book (series)
    Bioeconomic Analysis of the Kapenta Fisheries. Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe and Zambia
    GCP/RAF/466/EC SmartFish Project
    2012
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    FAO supports a joint management process and the development of fisheries on Lake Kariba between Zimbabwe and Zambia. The 4th Technical Consultation Meeting, held in Kariba in 2010, recommended the development of bioeconomic modelling of Kapenta fishery (Limnothrissa miodon). In support of this recommendation, a first field mission was conducted in November 2012 with the support of the SmartFish project. The objective of this mission was to meet with key stakeholders in the public and private sec tors involved in the Kapenta fishery in the two countries in order to:  inform them about the bioeconomic assessment exercise to be carried out on the Kapenta fishery;  underline the importance of their collaboration, in particular the provision of reliable data to fit the model;  find out more about the Kapenta fishery and current challenges;  gather key documents and information required for the bioeconomic modelling;  assess the quality of information requested for the bioeconomic modell ing and identify any gaps;  draft the Terms of Reference for National Consultants who will be responsible for the collection of additional information after the mission. Based on meetings with key officials in charge of the management of the fisheries and with leaders of fishing enterprises in the two countries, the main results of the mission indicate that:  The fishing capacities in the Kapenta fishery have greatly increased since the early 2000s, from approximately 600 rigs allowed on the l ake in 1999 to 1,098 in 2012 (5th Technical Consultation Meeting, 2012). There are also an unknown number of unregistered and unlicensed rigs (illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing);  The fishing effort, reported by the fishing companies, has subsequently increased dramatically (40 percent increase between 2000 and 2011);  The management system in the two countries is based on a licensing system and the payment of an annual fee for access to the fishery, as well as several technical mana gement measures (mesh size, zoning, and brief closures based on the lunar calendar). The industry is also obliged to record and transfer to the management authorities monthly data on their catch and fishing effort. In practice, it seems that there are no real access controls and poor enforcement of regulations. Thus, the fishery currently appears to be open and free for all.  4  The harvesting systems and the technical productivity of fleets in the two countries are relatively homogeneous. C atches per unit of effort have fallen by 35 to 50 percent since 2005;  Qualitative indicators based on the situation of fishing enterprises show that the Kapenta fishery is overfished and revenue from resources is widely dissipated;  Statistical data available on effort, catch and CPUE, as well as scientific knowledge on biological parameters of the Kapenta stock suggest that only a biological modelling based on a surplus production model (such as Schaeffer, Fox, etc.) is possible;  There is an important shortage of economic data on time series concerning ex- vessel prices, costs related to the activities of fishing enterprises, their investment, and their profitability. Consequently, the work of two national consultants to support this process will mainly be focused on the collection of economic data in order to estimate an average cost per unit of effort (night fished per rig) in each country and for each fishing zone. Key documents for the bioeconomic modelling were collected bef ore and during the mission (or just after). A complete list of these documents can be found in Annex C. These key documents and references will form the basis of bibliographical references for the modelling exercise. A questionnaire was developed to collect missing information for the bioeconomic modelling exercise (Annex E). This information was obtained from a field survey and from a sample of fishing companies of different sizes and operating in different fishing areas (Basin/Stratum) in the two countries. A sampling plan was made on the basis of data from the frame survey undertaken with FAO support in 2011. However, it is strongly suggested that this economic fieldwork will be conducted in close cooperation with those responsible for the Kapenta producer organizations in Zambia and Zimbabwe; on one hand for the selection of those companies to be interviewed and to facilitate contacts, and on the other hand, to ensure the quality of data to be collected and transmitted. Forthcoming steps for the continuation of the process leading to the bio economic modeling workshop were also defined, as well the format of the workshop.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Kapenta rig survey of the Zambian waters of Lake Kariba 2014
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    This survey revealed the huge extent of overfishing of kapenta that is occurring on the Zambian side of Lake Kariba and the rate at which this problem is expanding. It can be confidently reported that there are at least 950 boats but more likely over 1000 on the Zambian side of Lake Kariba. This is four times the number of vessels estimated to keep fishing at the original maximum sustainable yield. Rapid action is required to prevent further collapse of the kapenta fishing industry and it is the refore important to highlight the lack of enforcement and the lack of resources within Local Government and DOF to police these waters. This lack of enforcement is identified to be one of the leading problems. The DOF do not appear to have any record of the number of rigs registered legally on the lake.
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    Book (series)
    Assessment on the role and situation of women in Lake Kariba fisheries
    GCP/RAF/466/EC SmartFish Project
    2012
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    This report presents findings and recommendations for a study, which was commissioned by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Subregional Office for Southern Africa with the support of the GCP/RAF/466/EC SmartFish Project. Its objective was to obtain a better assessment of the role and situation of women in Lake Kariba fisheries following frame surveys undertaken by Zambia and Zimbabwe in 2011, with the support of FAO. The field study was carried out from 26 August t o 2 September 2012. Data collection methods used included literature review, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and observations. The findings from the study included the following: The authorities responsible for fisheries in Zambia and Zimbabwe do not have strategies to enable the equitable exploitation and use of Lake Kariba resources by women and men. The fisheries policies, documents and practices do not consider the differential position, situation and needs of women and men. The Fisheries Authorities have not kept sex disaggregated records for the people they have given permits. There has not been much coordination and consultation between the Fisheries Authorities and the Ministries of Women’s Affairs which are gender institutional mechanisms mandated to mainstream gender and women’s empowerment in economies of both countries including in fisheries activities. The involvement of women in fisheries activities has been negligible as a result of a variety of reasons such as difficulties in getting both artisanal and kapenta fishing permits; lack of capital to buy fishing gear; cultural hindrances which do not allow women to fish, swim or bath in the Lake; gender stereotypes which consider women as weaker vessels; fear on the part of women to go in the Lake and security risks associated with fishing in the Lake. Women are often involved in fishing methods on the shore or shallow water such as angling. Women have actively been involved in post-harvest activities such as fish marketing, drying and processing. Fishers’ spouses and other women are often involved in the management of fishing operations such as record-keeping, finance management and preparations for fishing trips. Specific women’s concerns and needs are not addressed at the Fisher Associations level in both countries. Women in both countries are not actively involved nor are they meaningfully represented in key governance processes of fisheries of Lake Kariba.

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