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What is driving livestock total factor productivity change? A persistent and transient efficiency analysis

Global Food Security Vol. 21









Acosta, A., & De los Santos-Montero, L. A. 2019. What is driving livestock total factor productivity change? A persistent and transient efficiency analysis. Global Food Security, 21, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2019.06.001


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    Asian livestock. Challenges, opportunities and the response.
    Proceedings of an international policy forum held in Bangkok, Thailand, 16-17 August 2012
    2012
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    Growing populations, rising disposable incomes and progressive urbanization in Asia and the Pacific region have spurred rapid growth in the consumption of animal source foods. The region has generated more than half the gains in global livestock production since the early 1990s and this growth is expected to continue in the foreseeable future. However, the manner of supply growth has also imposed considerable social, health and ecological costs. Signs of resource stress are now becoming visible and are raising new challenges for the food and nutrition security of the poor. There are also growing concerns of real and potential marginalization of small producers in the process, resulting in missed opportunities for supporting rural livelihoods. Climate change, water scarcity, land degradation and increased resource competition for food, feed and fuel production pose major additional challenges for the sector in the long run. The environmental and natural resource implications of livestoc k production have come under intense public scrutiny in recent years and the debate on climate change has been particularly passionate. Similarly, in view of the widespread prevalence of a number of production-limiting and trade-preventing diseases in the region and growing health concerns resulting from zoonotic and food-borne diseases, support for the development of policies and response systems for enhancing food safety and minimizing disease burdens is another area that is receiving growing attention. To discuss these issues, promote collaboration and knowledge exchange among relevant national and international agencies and discover ways of addressing future challenges, FAO and partner organizations convened the Regional Livestock Policy Forum in Bangkok, Thailand from 16 to17 August 2012. This publication provides the proceedings of the forum including technical papers presented. The presentations on good practices were video recorded and the video links are indicated in Annexure 1.
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    Booklet
    Climate-Smart Agriculture in Guinea-Bissau 2019
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    The climate smart agriculture (CSA) concept reflects an ambition to improve the integration of agriculture development and climate responsiveness. It aims to achieve food security and broader development goals under a changing climate and increasing food demand. CSA initiatives sustainably increase productivity, enhance resilience, and reduce/remove greenhouse gases (GHGs), and require planning to address trade-offs and synergies between three pillars: productivity, adaptation and mitigation. The priorities of different countries and stakeholders are reflected to achieve more efficient, effective, and equitable food systems that address challenges in environment, social, and economic dimensions across productive landscapes. The country profile provides a snapshot of a developing baseline created to initiate discussion, both within countries and globally, about entry points for investing in CSA at scale. The agricultural sector is the main stay of the economy of Guinea-Bissau. In the absence of other resources, the sector despite being underdeveloped plays a leading role in supporting food security and job creation. Presently it contributes about 46% of national gross domestic product (GDP) with 84% of the population actively employed in primary production agriculture largely dominated by women. The majority of these farmer are small scale farmers farming on less than two hectare (2 ha). More than half (58%) of the total land in Guinea-Bissau is used for agriculture with area under forest heavily degraded by rapid exploitation. However, there are huge potentials for agricultural and forestry land including arable land estimated at about 1.5 million hectares. Farmers engage in the production of diverse crops and livestock such as cashew, rice (country’s staple food), sorghum, maize, etc largely cultivated by subsistence farmers. Women usually take up horticulture in the urban areas. Livestock production concentrated mainly in the north and east of the country is one of the main economic activities supporting food security and thousands of livelihoods. The country is divided into three agroecological zones based on ecological, climatic and demographic characteristics. Agriculture is mainly rainfed with very limited irrigated farming practised. About 82% of water withdrawn is used for agricultural purposes impelling a necessity for huge investments in irrigation to support agriculture production. The projected population growth and food demand is expected to have serious implications on food security with a potential to affect the agricultural sector. Despite the agro-forestry-pastoral potential and fisheries resources of Guinea-Bissau, many studies have shown that, the current food situation in the country is very precarious with poverty identified as the underlining cause. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from the agricultural sector has been identified as very high with the country indicating reforestation as the major action for mitigating GHG emissions in its nationally determined contribution (NDC). Some challenges for the agricultural sector identified include (i) growth in population and food demand, (ii) land use change and natural resource depletion, (iii) limited marketing opportunities of agricultural commodities, and (iv) climate change and variability. Guinea-Bissau has a typical hot, humid monsoon-like tropical climate with two well-defined seasons. Agriculture is exposed to the effects of climate change with the country vulnerable to droughts, floods and sea level rise. The projected changes in temperature and rainfall are expected to have substantial impact on water resources which are already limited in their capacity to provide sufficient water for the agriculture sector. CSA technologies and practises present opportunities for addressing climate change challenges as well as for economic growth and development of the agriculture sector. Identified CSA practises in use in the country include (i) use of organic manure, (ii) use of weather information, (iii) water supply through drip irrigation, (iv) anti-erosion arrangement, (v) forage/fodder production, (vi) crop rotation, and (vii) rainwater harvesting through the Zai technique. There are a number of institutions and policies aimed at supporting and increasing agriculture productivity and advancing CSA practises in Guinea-Bissau. These include government, private sector, the national institute for agrarian research and general directorate of rural engineering with each most of the institutions profiles having CSA-related activities that deliver on all three pillars of CSA. The Ministry of environment which serves as the country’s UNFCCC focal point and Nationally Designated Authority to the Green Climate Fund (GCF), Adaptation fund, Climate Investment Fund and Global Environment Facility is responsible for the country’s climate change plans and policies. The food and agriculture organisation of the United Nations, the United Nations development programme and the international union for conservation of nature play instrumental roles in the promotion of sustainable agriculture and environmental sustainability. Most of the climate change and CSA-related funding have come from international sources with the UNDP being of great support through its signature programmes.
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    Document
    Improvement of reclaimed soil for sustainable wood energy forest and analysis of growth inhibitory factors by growing season of Populus euramericana
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    In this study, the effect of soil amendment and ferilization on soil physicochemical properties and tree growth(Populus euramericana) in reclaimed land was investigated. The stduy plot were established with two tillage levels and three soil additive levels: control(till 20cm, additives 0kg), T1(20cm, 4kg), T3(40cm, 8kg); each soil amendment treatments can be divided by two fertilization treatment(N: non-ferilized, F: ferilized). The first year after soil amendment treatments, NaCl and EC decreased compared to pre-treatment; however, there were no differences among the four treatments. The organic matter, total nitrogen and available phosphorus measured 3years after treatments, significantly increased compared to control while EC and NaCl notably lowered than control. Especially, EC in all treatments except the control was within the optimum range of tree growth(below 0.4dS/m). In terms of fertilization, chlorophyll concentration(SPAD) and biomass productivity in fertilization treatment were hight than no-fertilized treatment. The PCA analysis was performed to examine the relationship between soil abiotic properties and poplar growth each at the initial stage(rootage) and after rootage. The PCA analysis indicated that the major factor for poplar growth each at the initial stage was soil physical properties which play an important role in the early root development. After root development, soil pH and NaCl in the soil were the major growth inhibitory factors. This findings confirmed that the essential conditions for the efficient production of the wood energy feedstock in the reclaimed land were soil physical properties at the initial stage of (Populus euramericana) (before rootage) but soil chemical properties became important at the lateralstage of (Populus euramericana). Keywords: Adaptive and integrated management, Climate change, Economic Development ID: 3622988

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