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Validation and verification – Step 11, Principle 6










FAO. 2023. Validation and verification – Step 11, Principle 6. FAO Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Toolbox for Food Safety. Rome. 



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    Establish validated critical limits – Step 8, Principle 3 2023
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    Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) consists of seven principles and is typically described in 12 successive steps. This guidance document provides information on how to set and validate critical limits for each Critical control point (CCP) (Step 8 / Principle 3) to develop an effective HACCP system in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius General Principles of Food Hygiene (CXC 1-1969).  Critical limits establish whether a CCP is in control, and can, therefore, be used to separate acceptable products from unacceptable ones. Critical limits should be measurable or observable and typically use minimum and/or maximum values or critical parameters, such as temperature, time, moisture level, pH, aw, conveyor belt speed, etc. Critical limits should be scientifically validated to ensure they are capable of controlling hazards to an acceptable level. In many cases, CCPs can be validated using available information and existing studies from credible sources. This publication is part of the FAO Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Toolbox for Food Safety series. The toolbox is a central repository of practical guidance and resource materials to strengthen food safety capacities, both public and private, in order to develop and implement food safety management programmes in accordance with the Codex standards. Care was taken to consider the challenges faced by small food business operators and primary producers in low- and middle-income countries, and those with an institutional role, such as government officials, academia and capacity building organizations.
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    Documentation and record-keeping – Step 12, Principle 7 2023
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    Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) consists of seven principles and is typically described in 12 successive steps. This guidance document provides information on how to establish and maintain documents and records (Step 12 / Principle 7) to develop an effective HACCP system in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius General Principles of Food Hygiene (CXC 1-1969). Efficient and accurate record-keeping is essential to an effective HACCP system. Procedures related to HACCP should be documented, and the documentation and record-keeping should be appropriate to the nature and size of the operation and sufficient to help the business to verify that HACCP controls are in place and being maintained. Generic HACCP plans or materials developed by external experts may be used for documenting or recording, provided that those materials reflect the specific food operations of the business. Documentation and record-keeping do not need to be complicated. Records can be paper-based or electronic. This publication is part of the FAO Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Toolbox for Food Safety series. The toolbox is a central repository of practical guidance and resource materials to strengthen food safety capacities, both public and private, in order to develop and implement food safety management programmes in accordance with the Codex standards. Care was taken to consider the challenges faced by small food business operators and primary producers in low- and middle-income countries, and those with an institutional role, such as government officials, academia and capacity building organizations.
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    Corrective actions – Step 10, Principle 5 2023
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    Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) consists of seven principles and is typically described in 12 successive steps. This guidance document provides information on how to establish corrective actions (Step 10 / Principle 5) for each Critical control point (CCP) to respond effectively to deviations when they occur in order to develop an effective HACCP system in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius General Principles of Food Hygiene (CXC 1-1969). Specific written corrective actions should be developed for each CCP in the HACCP system to respond effectively to deviations when they occur. Products affected by a deviation are potentially unsafe. The corrective actions taken when a deviation occurs should ensure that control of the CCP and the process has been restored. The corrective action should address what happens to all potentially unsafe products. A root cause analysis should be conducted where possible to identify and correct the source of the deviation in order to minimize the possibility of such a deviation occurring again. Details of the corrective actions, including the cause of the deviation and the procedures to deal with the affected product, should be documented in the HACCP records and reviewed periodically to identify trends. This publication is part of the FAO Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Toolbox for Food Safety series. The toolbox is a central repository of practical guidance and resource materials to strengthen food safety capacities, both public and private, in order to develop and implement food safety management programmes in accordance with the Codex standards. Care was taken to consider the challenges faced by small food business operators and primary producers in low- and middle-income countries, and those with an institutional role, such as government officials, academia and capacity building organizations.

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