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التفريغ الاصطناعي الصدفيات - دليل عملي











Helm, M.M.; Bourne, N.; Lovatelli, A. (comp./ed.) Hatchery culture of bivalves. A practical manual. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 471. Rome, FAO. 2004. 177p.



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    Book (series)
    Hatchery culture of bivalves - A practical manual (chinese version) 2006
    This manual is a synthesis of current methodologies pertinent to the intensive hatchery culture of bivalve molluscs. It encompasses similarities and differences in approach in rearing clams, oysters and scallops in different climatic zones. All aspects of the culture process are described together with basic considerations in choosing a site for hatchery development and in the design of a suitable facility. The content also includes the post-hatchery handling of larvae in remote setting and also of spat in both land- and sea-based nurseries. It is intended to assist both technicians entering this field as well as entrepreneurs researching investment opportunities in bivalve culture.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (series)
    The hatchery culture of bivalves: a practical manual 2004
    Bivalve mollusc culture is an important and rapidly expanding sector of world aquaculture production, representing approximately 20% of this output at 14 million tonnes in 2000. The majority of production is from natural populations although increasingly stocks are approaching or have exceeded maximum sustainable yields. Enhancement of stocks through the capture and relaying of natural seed in both extensive and intensive forms of culture is common practice worldwide but the reliability of natur al recruitment can never be guaranteed and conflicts over the use of the coastal zone are becoming ever more pressing. A solution to meeting the seed requirements of the bivalve industry, applicable to the production of high unit value species such as clams, oysters and scallops, is hatchery culture. The production of seed through hatchery propagation accounts at the present time for only a small percentage of the total seed requirement but it is likely to become increasingly important as work continues to produce genetically selected strains with desirable characteristics suited to particular conditions. The advent of bivalve hatcheries was in the 1960s in Europe and the U.S. Since those early pioneering days knowledge of the biological requirements of the various species that predominate in worldwide aquaculture production and the technology by which to produce them has and continues to improve. This manual brings together the current state of knowledge in describing the v arious aspects of hatchery culture and production from acquisition of broodstock to the stage at which the seed are of sufficient size to transfer to sea-based growout. Focus is on intensive methodology in purpose built hatchery facilities rather than on more extensive methods of seed production in land-based pond systems. This manual is not intended as a scientific treatise on the subject. Rather, it is practical in nature providing the reader with an insight into what is required in the w ay of resources and details of how to handle and manage the various life history stages of bivalves in the hatchery production cycle.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (series)
    استزراع روبيان المياه العذبة 2008
    Also available in:

    This new manual, which replaces an earlier manual first issued in 1982, is an up-to-date practical guide to the farming of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Many of the techniques described are also applicable to the culture of other species of freshwater prawns. The principle target audience is farmers and extension workers but it is also hoped that it will be useful for aquaculture lecturers and students. After a preliminary section on the biology of freshwater prawns, the manual covers site selectio n for hatcheries, nurseries and grow-out facilities, and the management of the broodstock, hatchery, nursery and grow-out phases of rearing. Harvesting and post-harvest handling are also covered and there are some notes on marketing freshwater prawns. The reference and bibliography section contains a list of relevant reviews, as well as other (mainly FAO) manuals on general aquaculture themes, such as water and soil management, topography, pond construction and simple economics. The management p rinciples described are illustrated by photographs and drawings. The manual contains annexes on specific topics such as the production of larval feeds, size variation, and stock estimation. The final annex is a glossary that lists not only the terms used in the manual itself but also those which may be found in other documents.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (series)
    Hatchery culture of bivalves - A practical manual (chinese version) 2006
    This manual is a synthesis of current methodologies pertinent to the intensive hatchery culture of bivalve molluscs. It encompasses similarities and differences in approach in rearing clams, oysters and scallops in different climatic zones. All aspects of the culture process are described together with basic considerations in choosing a site for hatchery development and in the design of a suitable facility. The content also includes the post-hatchery handling of larvae in remote setting and also of spat in both land- and sea-based nurseries. It is intended to assist both technicians entering this field as well as entrepreneurs researching investment opportunities in bivalve culture.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (series)
    The hatchery culture of bivalves: a practical manual 2004
    Bivalve mollusc culture is an important and rapidly expanding sector of world aquaculture production, representing approximately 20% of this output at 14 million tonnes in 2000. The majority of production is from natural populations although increasingly stocks are approaching or have exceeded maximum sustainable yields. Enhancement of stocks through the capture and relaying of natural seed in both extensive and intensive forms of culture is common practice worldwide but the reliability of natur al recruitment can never be guaranteed and conflicts over the use of the coastal zone are becoming ever more pressing. A solution to meeting the seed requirements of the bivalve industry, applicable to the production of high unit value species such as clams, oysters and scallops, is hatchery culture. The production of seed through hatchery propagation accounts at the present time for only a small percentage of the total seed requirement but it is likely to become increasingly important as work continues to produce genetically selected strains with desirable characteristics suited to particular conditions. The advent of bivalve hatcheries was in the 1960s in Europe and the U.S. Since those early pioneering days knowledge of the biological requirements of the various species that predominate in worldwide aquaculture production and the technology by which to produce them has and continues to improve. This manual brings together the current state of knowledge in describing the v arious aspects of hatchery culture and production from acquisition of broodstock to the stage at which the seed are of sufficient size to transfer to sea-based growout. Focus is on intensive methodology in purpose built hatchery facilities rather than on more extensive methods of seed production in land-based pond systems. This manual is not intended as a scientific treatise on the subject. Rather, it is practical in nature providing the reader with an insight into what is required in the w ay of resources and details of how to handle and manage the various life history stages of bivalves in the hatchery production cycle.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (series)
    استزراع روبيان المياه العذبة 2008
    Also available in:

    This new manual, which replaces an earlier manual first issued in 1982, is an up-to-date practical guide to the farming of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Many of the techniques described are also applicable to the culture of other species of freshwater prawns. The principle target audience is farmers and extension workers but it is also hoped that it will be useful for aquaculture lecturers and students. After a preliminary section on the biology of freshwater prawns, the manual covers site selectio n for hatcheries, nurseries and grow-out facilities, and the management of the broodstock, hatchery, nursery and grow-out phases of rearing. Harvesting and post-harvest handling are also covered and there are some notes on marketing freshwater prawns. The reference and bibliography section contains a list of relevant reviews, as well as other (mainly FAO) manuals on general aquaculture themes, such as water and soil management, topography, pond construction and simple economics. The management p rinciples described are illustrated by photographs and drawings. The manual contains annexes on specific topics such as the production of larval feeds, size variation, and stock estimation. The final annex is a glossary that lists not only the terms used in the manual itself but also those which may be found in other documents.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (series)
    Hatchery culture of bivalves - A practical manual (chinese version) 2006
    This manual is a synthesis of current methodologies pertinent to the intensive hatchery culture of bivalve molluscs. It encompasses similarities and differences in approach in rearing clams, oysters and scallops in different climatic zones. All aspects of the culture process are described together with basic considerations in choosing a site for hatchery development and in the design of a suitable facility. The content also includes the post-hatchery handling of larvae in remote setting and also of spat in both land- and sea-based nurseries. It is intended to assist both technicians entering this field as well as entrepreneurs researching investment opportunities in bivalve culture.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (series)
    The hatchery culture of bivalves: a practical manual 2004
    Bivalve mollusc culture is an important and rapidly expanding sector of world aquaculture production, representing approximately 20% of this output at 14 million tonnes in 2000. The majority of production is from natural populations although increasingly stocks are approaching or have exceeded maximum sustainable yields. Enhancement of stocks through the capture and relaying of natural seed in both extensive and intensive forms of culture is common practice worldwide but the reliability of natur al recruitment can never be guaranteed and conflicts over the use of the coastal zone are becoming ever more pressing. A solution to meeting the seed requirements of the bivalve industry, applicable to the production of high unit value species such as clams, oysters and scallops, is hatchery culture. The production of seed through hatchery propagation accounts at the present time for only a small percentage of the total seed requirement but it is likely to become increasingly important as work continues to produce genetically selected strains with desirable characteristics suited to particular conditions. The advent of bivalve hatcheries was in the 1960s in Europe and the U.S. Since those early pioneering days knowledge of the biological requirements of the various species that predominate in worldwide aquaculture production and the technology by which to produce them has and continues to improve. This manual brings together the current state of knowledge in describing the v arious aspects of hatchery culture and production from acquisition of broodstock to the stage at which the seed are of sufficient size to transfer to sea-based growout. Focus is on intensive methodology in purpose built hatchery facilities rather than on more extensive methods of seed production in land-based pond systems. This manual is not intended as a scientific treatise on the subject. Rather, it is practical in nature providing the reader with an insight into what is required in the w ay of resources and details of how to handle and manage the various life history stages of bivalves in the hatchery production cycle.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (series)
    استزراع روبيان المياه العذبة 2008
    Also available in:

    This new manual, which replaces an earlier manual first issued in 1982, is an up-to-date practical guide to the farming of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Many of the techniques described are also applicable to the culture of other species of freshwater prawns. The principle target audience is farmers and extension workers but it is also hoped that it will be useful for aquaculture lecturers and students. After a preliminary section on the biology of freshwater prawns, the manual covers site selectio n for hatcheries, nurseries and grow-out facilities, and the management of the broodstock, hatchery, nursery and grow-out phases of rearing. Harvesting and post-harvest handling are also covered and there are some notes on marketing freshwater prawns. The reference and bibliography section contains a list of relevant reviews, as well as other (mainly FAO) manuals on general aquaculture themes, such as water and soil management, topography, pond construction and simple economics. The management p rinciples described are illustrated by photographs and drawings. The manual contains annexes on specific topics such as the production of larval feeds, size variation, and stock estimation. The final annex is a glossary that lists not only the terms used in the manual itself but also those which may be found in other documents.

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