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Checklist of the parasites of fishes of Bangladesh











Arthur, J.R.; Ahmed, A.T.A. Checklist of the parasites of fishes of Bangladesh. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 369/1. Rome, FAO. 2002. 77 p.


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    Asia Regional Technical Guidelines on Health Management for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals and the Beijing Consensus and Implementation Strategy. 2000
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    The Asia Regional Technical Guidelines on Health Management for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals and their associated implementation plan, the Beijing Consensus and Implementation Strategy (BCIS), provide expert guidance for national and regional efforts in reducing the risks of disease due to trans-boundary movement of live aquatic animals. The Technical Guidelines were initiated due to increased recognition that disease emergence is often linked to live aquatic animal movements , and that the associated economic losses, including impacts on rural livelihoods and national efforts in poverty alleviation and food security, are highly significant. New trade agreements and requirements generated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) further reinforced the necessity for improved live aquatic animal health management. Recognising the need for a region-wide approach to aquatic animal health management, the national governments of countries of the Asia Region requested FAO, thr ough NACA, to assist production of a set of technical guidelines that could be used to improve and harmonise aquatic animal health management strategies for responsible trans-boundary movement of live aquatic animals. An FAO Technical Co-operation Programme (TCP) Project - “Assistance for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals” was launched by NACA in 1998, with the participation of 21 countries from throughout the region. This programme complemented FAO's efforts in assisting member countries to implement the relevant provisions in Article 9 - Aquaculture Development - of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF), at both the national and regional levels. A set of Guiding Principles, formulated by a group of aquatic animal health experts at the Regional Workshop held in 1996 in Bangkok, formed the basis for an extensive consultative process, between 1998-2000, involving input from government-designated National Co-ordinators (NCs), the Network of Aquaculture Cen tres in Asia-Pacific (NACA), FAO, the Office International des Épizooties (OIE), and regional and international specialists. The Technical Guidelines were unanimously endorsed at the Final Workshop on Asia Regional Health Management for the Responsible Trans-boundary Movement of Live Aquatic Animals, held in Beijing, China, 27 th -30 th June 2000. Recognising the crucial importance of implementation of the Technical Guidelines, the participants prepared a detailed implementation strategy, the Be ijing Consensus and Implementation Strategy (BCIS), focussing on National Strategies and with support through regional and international co-operation. The NCs gave unanimous e ndorsement of the Technical Guidelines, in principle, as providing valuable guidance for national and regional efforts in reducing the risks of disease due to the trans-boundary movement of live aquatic animals, and the workshop participants unanimously approved the associated implementation strategy. Implementation of t he Technical Guidelines will contribute to securing and increasing income of aquaculturists in Asia by minimising the disease risks associated with trans-boundary movement of aquatic animal pathogens. They will also contribute to regional efforts to improve rural livelihoods, within the broader framework of responsible management, environmental sustainability and protection of aquatic biodiversity. (Key words: Asia, Aquaculture, Health Management, Aquatic animal diseases, Quarantine, Health Ce rtification, Guidelines)
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    DNA-based molecular diagnostic techniques: research needs for standardization and validation of the detection of aquatic animal pathogens and diseases.
    Report and proceedings of the Expert Workshop on DNA-based Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: Research Needs for Standardization and Validation of the Detection of Aquatic Animal Pathogens and Diseases. Bangkok, Thailand, 7-9 February 1999.
    2000
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    In efforts to limit trans-boundary movement of pathogens and reduce the economic and socioeconomic impact of disease in aquaculture, there is considerable scope for more effective use of DNA-based methods of pathogen detection. These technologies offer rapid results with potentially high sensitivity and specificity, at relatively low cost. Recognition of these advantages has led to rapid adoption of available DNA-based tests, particularly in shrimp culture for which histological procedures lack specificity and culture-based methods have not been possible. However, few if any of the available tests have been assessed appropriately against other diagnostic methods or standardized and validated for specified applications. In fish and shrimp, type or strain specificity of most tests for pathogens in the Asian region is poorly understood and, in molluscs, there is little information on the significant pathogens and few tests of any kind have been developed. Furthermore, tests presently avai lable are frequently conducted by technicians who may not be sufficiently aware of the need for stringent test protocols or the meaning and limitations of the data generated. Implementation of standardized practices that produce reliable, useful and comparable data will require a significant investment in research, training and infrastructure development. Effective implementation will also be assisted by enhanced communication between aquatic animal health practitioners in the region and scienti sts with expertise in molecular diagnostic technologies. This review recommends development by FAO/NACA of 2 programs of managed cooperative research to assist more effective use of DNA-based detection tests. Program A should focus on improving the knowledge base by identification of new and emerging pathogens, relating pathogens in the region to those described elsewhere, and defining the extent of genetic variation between related pathogens in the region. Program B should draw on information currently available or obtained from Program A to develop suitably specific DNA-based diagnostic methods and to evaluate and validate the methods for disease diagnosis and pathogen screening programs. To increase the availability of scientists and technicians with skills in pathology and molecular diagnostic technologies, the review also recommends development of FAO/NACA-sponsored training programs for staff from key laboratories in the region. Training priorities should be in: i) the use of standard histopathological methods for health screening of fish and molluscs; and ii) the use of standard DNA-based methods for pathogen detection including sample collection, application of test protocols and the analysis and interpretation of test results. Because of the urgency of disease problems and the availability of suitable tests, training in DNA-based methods should focus initially on detection of shrimp pathogens. The review also recommends the development of a laboratory accredita tion program in order to achieve standardization of sampling methods and test procedures. The establishment of reference laboratories will assist accreditation for each of the major pathogens. Laboratory accreditation and training programs should complement the activities of OIE in obtaining internationally agreed test standards for molecular diagnostic technologies.
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    Checklist of the parasites of fishes of Viet Nam 2006
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    This publication is a checklist summarizing information on the parasites of Vietnamese fishes contained in world literature dating from the earliest known record (Billet 1898) to the end of 2003. Information is presented in the form of parasite-host and host-parasite lists and contains 453 named species of parasites (not including 4 nomina nuda), distributed among the higher taxa as follows: Protozoa - 48, Myxozoa - 33, Digenea - 151, Monogenoidea - 112, Cestoda - 16, Nematoda - 53, Acanthocepha la - 21, Hirudinea - 2, Branchiura - 3, Copepoda - 12 and Isopoda - 2. Many records of parasites not identified to species level are also included. The parasite-host list is organized on a taxonomic basis and provides information for each parasite species on the environment (freshwater, brackish water, marine), the location (site of infection) in or on its host(s), the species of host(s) infected, the known geographic distribution (by administrative division) in Viet Nam and the published source s for each host and locality record. The host-parasite list is organized according to the taxonomy of the hosts, and includes, for each host, the English language and local (Vietnamese) common names, environment (freshwater, brackish water, marine), status in Viet Nam (native or exotic) and information on the known distribution in Viet Nam of the parasites. Both lists are accompanied by remarks and footnotes, as warranted, giving specific information on points of systematics, nomenclature, possi ble misidentifications, introductions, etc. Citations are included for all references, as well as parasite and host indices. The following new taxonomic combinations are made: Elongoparorchis siamensis (Oshmarin, 1965) n. comb.; Capillaria ariusi (Parukhin, 1989) n. comb., Falcaustra babei (Ky, 1971) n. comb. and Neocamallanus trichogasterae (Pearse, 1933) n. comb. The parasite fauna of fishes of Viet Nam has received considerable attention, particularly by scientists of the former Soviet Union, in the marine environment, and by Vietnamese and Czech freshwater scientists. Nevertheless, parasites have been recorded from only about 10 percent of the more than 1 300 species of marine and freshwater fish occurring in the waters of Viet Nam. Knowledge of freshwater fauna is hampered by a lack of descriptive work and by many probable misidentifications of parasites, owing to the tendency of Vietnamese workers to report European species from the local fish fauna.

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