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Rift Valley Fever could spread with movement of animals from East Africa









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    Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Madagascar and potential risks to neighbouring countries 2008
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    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an arthropod-borne viral disease of ruminants, camels and humans. It is a significant zoonosis which may present itself from an uncomplicated influenza-like illness to a haemorrhagic disease with severe liver involvement and ocular or neurological lesions. In animals, RVF may be unapparent in non-pregnant adults, but outbreaks are characterised by the onset of a large number of abortions and high neonatal mortality. The virus (Phlebovirus) is usually transmitted by var ious arthropods. Human infections have also resulted from the bites of infected mosquitoes, most commonly the Aedes mosquito. Mosquitoes from six genera (Aedes, Culex, Mansonia, Anopheles, Coquillettidia and Eretmapodites), including more than 30 species, have been recorded as infected, and some of them are proven to have a role as vectors. Most of these species acquire the infection by biting infected vertebrate animals, but some (specifically Aedes spp.) pass the virus transovarially (vertical transmission). These infected pools of eggs can survive through desiccation for months or years and restart transmission after flooding; then other species (Culex spp.) may be involved as secondary vectors. Vertical transmission (from an infected female mosquito to eggs) explains how the virus can persist for many years or decades between outbreaks.
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    Possible RVF activity in the Horn of Africa 2006
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    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an arthropod-borne viral disease of ruminants, camels and humans. It is a significant zoonosis which may present itself from an uncomplicated influenza-like illness to a haemorrhagic disease with severe liver involvement and ocular or neurological lesions. In animals, RVF may be unapparent in non-pregnant adults, but outbreaks are characterised by the onset of abortions and high neonatal mortality. Transmission to humans may occur through close contact with infected ma terial (slaughtering or manipulation of runts), but the virus (Phlebovirus) is transmitted in animals by various arthropods including 6 mosquito genus (Aedes, Culex, Mansonia, Anopheles, Coquillettidia and Eretmapodites) with more than 30 species of mosquitoes recorded as infected and some of them been proved to have a role as vectors. Most of these species get the infection by biting infected vertebrates, yet some of these (specifically Aedes species) transmit the virus to their eggs. These inf ected pools of eggs can survive through desiccation during months or years and restart the transmission after flooding, and then other species (Culex spp.) may be involved as secondary vectors. This vertical infection explains how the disease can persist between outbreaks.
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    Rift Valley fever surveillance
    FAO Animal Production and Health Manual No. 21.
    2018
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    Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus, a mosquito-borne zoonotic agent, causes haemorrhagic fever in humans, and abortion and neonatal death in livestock. Outbreaks have caused national meat markets to collapse and have in the past caused regional trade embargoes. The geography of infection and clinical disease is expanding. Climate change is expected to accelerate this spread. The known geographic range of the virus is already larger than the areas where clinical disease has been observed. Effective surveillance is essential to mitigate the impact of RVF on lives, livelihoods and national economies. The RVF Surveillance Manual provides risk-based guidance for designing, planning and implementing effective participatory and syndromic surveillance. It builds on approaches outlined in the OIE Guide to Terrestrial Animal Health Surveillance and the RVF Decision Support Framework. It shows you how to tailor this guidance to the epidemiological needs of individual countries, starting with setting appropriate objectives. RVF surveillance objectives need to be in line with the country’s risk category and economic goals. Selecting the most appropriate indicators and methods for the situation follows easily from these goals and objectives. The manual is not prescriptive. Instead, it suggests questions to help you build a timely and sensitive surveillance system suited to national objectives and resources

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