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C 91/LIM/49 - 证书委员会的第三次报告













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    Book (stand-alone)
    Guidelines: land evaluation for extensive grazing
    FAO Soils Bulletin No. 58
    1991
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    Extensive grazing is the predominant form of land use on at least a quarter of the world’s land surface, in which livestock are raised on food that comes mainly from rangelands. Extensive grazing differs from crop or forestry production, in which the produce remains in situ whilst growing. Evaluation for extensive grazing, unlike that for cropping or forestry, must take into account the production of both grazing forage, termed primary production, and the livestock that feed on this forage, term ed secondary production. Extensive grazing also differs from intensive grazing, in which the animal feed comes mainly from artificial, seeded pastures and not from unimproved rangeland. This relationship between livestock and arable farming must be considered when evaluating land for improved uses in which livestock play a major part. If one component of the overall land use is developed in isolation from the others, the balance between extensive grazing and arable farming may easily be distur bed. Land evaluation is used to identify alternative land uses or changes in management that will better meet national or local needs, and to estimate the consequences of each feasible change. In terms of extensive grazing, it encourages the promotion of sustainable land uses that integrate land, livestock and people for their mutual benefit.
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    Project
    Socio-economic investigations of Lake Kivu fisheries 1991
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    The IFIP project started in January 1989 with the main objective of promoting a more effective and rational exploitation of the fisheries resources of major water bodies of Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. The project is executed by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), and funded by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) for a duration of four years. There are eleven countries and three intergovernmental organisations participating in the project: Bu rundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaire, Zimbabwe, The Communauté Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs (CEPGL), The Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern African States (PTA) and the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC). The immediate objectives of the project are: (i) to strengthen regional collaboration for the rational development and management of inland fisheries, particularly with respect to shared water bodies ; (ii) to provide advisory services and assist Governments in sectoral and project planning; (iii) to strengthen technical capabilities through training; and (iv) to establish a regional information base. The document presents the results of socio-economic investigations of the Lake Kivu fisheries with emphasis on the organizational structure of the fisheries, investments, fishermen's status, their attitudes and problems, etc. These investigations were conducted jointly by the IFIP Project and the Fisheries Development Project, based in Gisenyi, Rwanda. The objectives of this study were to up-date and assess the socio-economic structure of fisheries on Lake Kivu, to gain an insight into the performance of all different fishing economic units on the lake, and to benchmark data for the future assessment of this fishery's evolution.
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