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General guidelines to facilitate the opening of international markets for fruits and vegetables that are fruit fly hosts based on International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures









FAO/IAEA. 2022. General guidelines to facilitate the opening of international markets for fruits and vegetables that are fruit fly hosts based on International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures. Vienna.



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    A standard method for the confirmation of non-host status of fruit and vegetables to tephritid fruit flies has important ramifications for international trade in many fresh fruit and vegetable commodities. Non-host or conditional non-host status at a particular stage of harvest maturity can be used as a phytosanitary measure to ensure freedom from fruit fly infestation. However, published records of hosts for particular fruit fly species may not always be reliable for determining non-host stat us for phytosanitary purposes. They may be misleading, incomplete or incorrect for negotiating market access protocols. This standard uses well-known techniques to provide a regular methodology for solving the problem of inaccurate host status records or the absence of host status information. This standard was endorsed by the by the twenty-fourth session of the Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission (APPPC) held in Bangkok, Thailand in September 2005. Regional standards for phytosa nitary measures are developed and adopted by APPPC as part of the plant protection programme of the Commission's contracting parties to support regional harmonization and facilitate trade of commodities by member countries.
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    Phytosanitary measures are often required for imported commodities to prevent the introduction of quarantine pests. Such measures need to be appropriate for a specific commodity and effective against the quarantine pests of that commodity. Among the options available, heat treatment is regarded as one the measures that is environmentally friendly and free from residues. Endorsed by the twenty-third session of the Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission (APPPC) held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in August 2003, these guidelines describe methods for identifying and developing appropriate heat disinfestation treatments against quarantine fruit flies in host commodities traded by APPPC member countries. Regional standards for phytosanitary measures are developed and adopted by APPPC as part of the plant protection programme of the Commission's contracting parties to support regional harmonization and facilitate trade of commodities by member countries.
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    Since the Marrakech Round Table in 2004, the international community has supported five specific commitments related to improving the effectiveness of development assistance1, synthesized in the concept of “Managing for Development Results”. This implies taking into account from the beginning of any initiative, project or program the expected outcomes and how to achieve them. Furthermore, the implementation, progress monitoring, and subsequent evaluation should consider the expected outcomes tha t were established at the beginning of the process. In this regard, there is a great challenge for developing countries to adopt a new vision. This means breaking with old customs and patterns in the manner of handling the project cycle, changing from a focus on addressing demand to a planning process for achieving specific outcomes, established from the beginning. While there is no single approach, since each country, each sector and each project presents particular situations, there are experi ences that can be systematized and shared. The preparation of a set of tools for results based management responds to the need to break with inertial operating schemes of public development programs in the majority of countries, which do not contemplate efficiency and efficacy in achieving results. The absence of such an approach implies that substantial resources are spent without a timeframe for resolving the problems that the public interventions are intended for. The document “Results based public management: Tools for the design and implementation of public rural development programs with a project cycle approach” includes the four phases of the life cycle of a project or program. The second module presents the procedure and methodological tools for the design of a program or project which will be synthesized in the Logical Framework. In this module the methodology is shown for conducting the objectives analysis and the alternatives analysis, constructing performance indicators, i dentifying the means of verification, identifying risk and assumptions, and collecting counterfactual data for a baseline of the performance indicators of the program or project.

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