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Selection on a drought tolerance and using its results for adaptation of pine forests to climate change

XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022









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    Genetic diversity and physiological response to drought stress of Chamaecyparis obtusa from six geographical locations
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Water deficit is a critical factor obstructing the growth and survival of plant. Therefore, researchers have been trying to develop drought-resistant varieties. To find indicators of drought stress-tolerance of cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa), we analyzed the response of cypress seedlings from six provenances of Korea (Jeju, Suwon, Seoul, Seongnam, Yong-in, and Osan) to drought stress. Additionally, the genetic diversity of C. obtusa from the six provenances were determined using microsatellite markers. We confirmed that populations from Suwon and Seongnam were relatively separated from other populations through genetic distance and cluster analysis. We examined their physiologic and metabolic responses after drought treatment for five weeks. Almost all of the cypress seedlings showed a reduced shoot growth rate under drought treatment compared to controls. In addition, temperature of drought treated cypress seedling leaves was 1.2-2°C higher than that of the controls. Almost all of the drought stress-treated cypress showed increased carbon metabolite contents and pigments. In particular, the cypress seedlings from Osan showed the highest increase in all of the measured metabolites. Therefore, it is suggested that the seedlings from Osan are susceptible to drought stress. Conversely, the seedlings from Jeju, Suwon, and Yong-in showed a lower sensitivity to drought treatment. These results indicate that the cypress trees from the six provenances have a different response to drought stress. In addition, it is confirmed that previously identified indicators of drought stress, especially those that measure total soluble sugar, carotenoid, and H2O2, can be used in the selection of drought resistance cypress. These findings may useful in studies concerned with the metabolic and physiological responses of young cypress to drought. Keywords: Climate change, Genetic resources, Research ID: 3618007
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    Genetic test collections of poplars in the south-eastern part of European Russia for biodiversity preservation
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    The relevance of research on biodiversity conservation corresponds to the trends of ideas of the last century, summarized in the Rio Convention (1992) and subsequent international acts. The greatest problem is the preservation of intraspecific diversity. According to the chromosomal inheritance theory of Sutton and Boveri, the number of possible phenotypes of two parents is expressed as 2n,and genotypes as 3n, where n is the haploid number of chromosomes in the parents. In particular, for poplars this is ≈ 500 thousand different descendants, and the number of genotypes can be ≈ 4.6 billion. Taking into account the decoding of genome data, these values can be increased many times. In forest tree breeding researchers try to identify the most useful organisms or their aggregates from the existing varieties. Since its Foundation in 1971 the All-Russian Research Institute of Forest Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology has been working to create an ex situ field collection fund of practically valuable clones, hybrids and varieties of poplars. The collections were created over the next 50 years, taking into account the recommendations of the field experience methodology. In different regions of the country the collections of hundreds clones and new hybrids in 5 locations; the variety testing sites in 15 locations; and root cutting plantations in 19 locations were created. Totally, 54.04 ha of poplar experimental objects were created in the South-Eastern part of the European territory of Russia. As a result of many years research, new varieties of poplars have been developed for plantation, protective and reclamation afforestation, as well as for landscaping in the forest-steppe and steppe zones of European Russia. Keywords: Biodiversity conservation, Genetic resources, Research, Poplar breeding, Poplar varieties. ID: 3488495
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    Patula pine (Pinus patula) cones opening under different treatments for rapid seed extraction in Londiani, Kenya
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Seed extraction from pines is challenging to the forestry sector globally. This is usually contributed by the pine cone anatomy that opens through a function of temperature and humidity which varies widely in the pine growing regions of the world and the Pinus species as observed in previous works done on Pinus roxburghii, Pinus halepensis, Pinus wallichiana, Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata, and Pinus sylvestris. This study sought to reduce the extraction time and improve the extraction efficiency of Pinus patula seed in Kenya. The experimental design used was two factorial design with replicates of twenty cones randomly picked per treatment. Data analysis was analyzed through ANOVA with a Pvalue of 0.05. We present evidence that soaking does not influence the opening of cones and seed yield for the optimum temperature which the study determined to be 65°C. We also present evidence that, for rapid seed extraction, the temperature 65°C with an exposure period of between 4 and 24 h is significantly effective. This study presents a new understanding of rapid seed extraction, which contributes to one of the Kenya Forestry Research Institute’s strategic objectives of generating technologies for enhanced production of superior germplasm for priority tree species. Keyword: Research ID: 3469689

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