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Safety and quality of water used with fresh fruits and vegetables











FAO and WHO. 2021. Safety and quality of water used with fresh fruits and vegetables. Microbiological Risk Assessment Series No. 37. Rome. 




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    Book (series)
    Prevention and control of microbiological hazards in fresh fruits and vegetables – Parts 1 & 2: General principles
    Meeting report
    2023
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    Fruits and vegetables are an important part of a healthy diet and are protective against many chronic health conditions. Yet, fresh fruits and vegetables have been consistently implicated in food safety incidents involving microbiological hazards around the globe for decades. In response to requests of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene concerning microbiological hazards in fresh fruits and vegetables and to update and expand the information available in Microbiological hazards in fresh leafy vegetables and herbs (MRA14), which was published in 2008, FAO and WHO convened a series of expert meetings in 2021 to 2022. The purpose of the meetings was to collect, review and discuss relevant measures to control microbiological hazards from primary production to point of sale in fresh, ready-to-eat (RTE) and minimally processed fruits and vegetables, including leafy vegetables. The experts made an effort to update and include any recent trends in commodity and pathogen pairing or pathogen occurrence and presence with a focus on emerging and neglected pathogens. The primary production in open fields was investigated by considering the location, adjacent land use, topography, and climate; prior land use; water; wildlife, animal and human intrusion; soil amendments; and harvest and packing. The experts also worked on: primary production in protected facilities; minimal processing; transport, distribution, and point of sale; and also the gaps in mitigation and interventions measures. The advice herein is useful for both risk assessors and risk managers, at national and international levels and those in the food industry working to control the relevant hazards in the fresh fruits and vegetables. the development of improved mitigation and intervention measures.
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    Book (series)
    Prevention and control of microbiological hazards in fresh fruits and vegetables – Part 4: Specific commodities
    Meeting report
    2023
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    In 2019, following a request from the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH), the Codex Alimentarius Committee (CAC) approved new work at its 42nd Session on the development of guidelines for the control of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in leafy vegetables and in sprouts. The objective of the report was to evaluate commodity-specific interventions used at all stages of fresh fruit and vegetable production from primary production to post-harvest activities, transportation, point of sale and consumer use. Emphasis was placed on the identification and evaluation of interventions used throughout the world to reduce microbiological hazards of fresh fruits and vegetables that contribute to the risk of foodborne illnesses, taking into consideration their effectiveness, practicality and suitability. The expert committee addressed four subdivided commodity groups: 1) leafy vegetables and herbs, 2) berries and tropical fruits, 3) melons and tree fruits, and 4) seeded and root vegetables.
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    Book (series)
    Safety and quality of water use and reuse in the production and processing of dairy products
    Meeting report
    2023
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    Water is used for a wide range of activities in the dairy sector, which consumes a substantial volume of first-use drinking water for production processes, cleaning and disinfection. There is a great potential to exploit possible sources of reusable water in the dairy sector.In 2020, the 43rd session of the Codex Alimentarius Commission approved the new work entitled “Development of Guidelines for the Safe Use and Reuse of Water in Food Production” proposed by the 51st session of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene. To support this work, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Meeting on Microbiological Risk Assessment (JEMRA) was asked to provide scientific advice regarding safe use and reuse of water in the dairy sector. JEMRA convened an online meeting from 14 June to 2 July 2021 to provide clear and practical guidance on risk-based approaches to assess and manage fit-for-purpose water sourcing, use and reuse in the dairy sector. This report describes the output of this meeting to support the decision-making when applying the concept of fit-for-purpose water for use in the production and processing of dairy products.

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