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Main pests of beech forests in South East Europe

GCP/KOS/005/FIN







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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    Main pests of pine forests in South East Europe
    GCP/KOS/005/FIN
    2014
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    The health status of individual pine trees is characterized mainly based on defoliation, i.e. the relative foliar loss of a tree crown compared to that of a fully-leafed, healthy reference tree growing in the same stand and site conditions. Tree crown defoliation is a non-specific damage symptom, normally associated with a range of harmful factors, each of which can act separately or together. To determine the effects of single factors on the amount of damage and their importance is usually very difficult. It is usually impossible to separate the influence of climate change from other harmful factors (insects, pathogens, air pollution) affecting the health status in forest ecosystems.
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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet

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