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Standard operating procedure for soil microbial biomass (carbon): chloroform fumigation-extraction method








FAO. 2024. Standard operating procedure for soil microbial biomass (carbon): chloroform fumigation-extraction method. Rome.



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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    Standard operating procedure for soil respiration rate 2023
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    This Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) reports how to determine soil respiration rate, which is one of the longest established and most frequently used parameter for quantifying microbial activity in soils. It is defined as oxygen (O2) uptake or carbon dioxide (CO2) evolution by soil microorganisms and includes the gas exchange of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism.
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    Managing taxonomic and functional diversity is the key to sustain aboveground biomass and soil microbial diversity: A synthesis from long-term forest restoration of southern China
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Exploring the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship is one of the central goals of ecological research. Restoration is essential for supporting key ecosystem functions such as aboveground biomass production and managing soil microbial diversity. However, the relative importance of functional versus taxonomic diversity in explaining aboveground biomass and soil microbial diversity during restoration is poorly understood. Here, we used a trait-based approach to test for the importance of multiple plant diversity attributes in regulating aboveground biomass and soil microbial diversity in four 30- years-old restored subtropical forests in southern China. High-throughput Illumina sequencing was applied for detecting fungal and bacterial diversity. We show that both taxonomic and functional diversities are significant and positive regulators of aboveground biomass; however, functional diversity (FD) was more important than taxonomic diversity (TD) in controlling aboveground biomass. FD had the strongest direct effect on aboveground biomass compared with TD, soil properties, and community weighted mean (CWM) traits. Our results further indicate that leaf and root morphological traits and traits related to the nutrient content in plant tissues showed acquisitive resource use strategy which influenced aboveground biomass. In contrast to aboveground biomass, taxonomic diversity explained more of the soil microbial diversity than the FD and soil properties. Prediction of fungal richness was better than that of bacterial richness. In addition, root traits explained more variation of soil microbes than the leaf traits. Our results suggest that both TD and FD play a role in shaping aboveground biomass and soil microbial diversity; but FD is more important in supporting aboveground biomass while TD for belowground microbial diversity. These results imply that enhancing TD and FD is important to restoring and managing degraded forest landscapes. Key words: Biodiversity-Ecosystem functions; soil microbial diversity, taxonomic diversity, functional diversity, forest restoration ID: 3486373
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    Article
    The influence of over-mature, degraded Nothofagus forests with strong anthropic disturbance on the quality of an andisol and Its gradual recovery with silvopasture in southwestern South America
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    The increasing demand for timber and non-timber products from native forests in Chile and the cattle grazing has augmented the rate of degradation of these ecosystems. This process results in the need to know which of the dynamic variables are involved in its regulation. Soil quality indicators like soil organic carbon (SOC), soil microbial respiration (SMR), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), potential net N mineralization (N-min), and nitrification (N-NO), soil aggregates, and light fraction (LF), were evaluated at two different depths of the soil in Nothofagus obliqua (deciduous) and mixed N. dombeyi - N. obliqua (evergreen-deciduous) forests, where a 30- ha silvopastoral trial was established, after this evaluation, in early 2016. The SOC, SMR, MBC, N-min and N-NO were significantly higher in the N. obliqua forest than the mixed forest, 8%, 17%, 17%, 40%, 20%, respectively (p<0.05). The dry weight in soil fractions did not present differences between forest types. C and N contents in the LF (labile, un-decomposed organic matter of plant origin) were higher in the deciduous forest, 9% and 20%, respectively (p<0.05). Our results suggest that soil quality was favored by the quality of organic matter in the site dominated by deciduous species, which translates into more favorable conditions for the activity of microorganisms, nitrogen dynamic, and C and N content in the light faction. The intrinsic characteristics of the plant residues associated with higher rates of decomposition, can stimulate the activity of the biota and especially the soil microorganisms, which would lead to higher values of the different indicators evaluated. This novel silvopastoral system will likely help restore the most degraded sites through improvement of the soil quality. This kind of information allows obtaining knowledge of the forest areas and their sustainability, mainly for the planning of long-term, durable silvopastoral practices. Keywords: Forest degradation, Nothofagus obliqua, N. dombeyi, silvopastoral systems, Temperate Forest, Volcanic soil ID:3484562

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