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The household- and individual-level economic impacts of cash transfer programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa










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    Qualitative research and analyses of the economic impacts of cash transfer programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa
    Synthesis Report
    2015
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    This report synthesizes the analysis and findings of a set of six country case studies that explore the impact of cash transfer programmes on household economic decision-making and the local economy in sub-Saharan Africa. The six countries are Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi and Zimbabwe. The research is being carried out under the auspices of the “From Protection to Production” (PtoP) project, a four-year collaboration between the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the United King dom Department for International Development (DFID) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The PtoP is part of a larger effort, the Transfer Project – jointly implemented by UNICEF, Save the Children and the University of North Carolina – that supports the implementation of cash transfer evaluations in sub-Saharan Africa. The research is intended as a complement to other studies of cash transfer programmes that focus more on social indicators such as health and e ducation outcomes. It therefore covers themes such as the extent to which cash transfers can help households to manage risk, overcome credit constraints, make productive investments and improve their access to markets, as well as their effect in stimulating local economies. It also refers to analysis from other studies, in particular those conducted under the PtoP project, in order to strengthen the integration of data. The six country case studies were carried out by Oxford Policy Management ( OPM), a development consultancy in the United Kingdom, in partnership with local research organizations and researchers. Each study had an individual lead researcher from OPM; the overall project managers for the six-country study were Simon Brook and Valentina Barca of OPM. The technical Team Leader was Jeremy Holland, an OPM Associate. Pamela Pozarny of FAO provided technical oversight and contributed to the field research in all six countries, and to this final synthesis report.
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    The local economy impacts of social cash transfers
    A comparative analysis of seven sub-Saharan countries
    2016
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    This article presents findings on the local economy impacts of seven African country SCT programmes evaluated as part of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization’s (FAO) “From Protection to Production” (PtoP) project. The countries are Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The PtoP project has facilitated expansion of the evaluations of SCT programmes to include productive and local-economy impacts. Local economy-wide impact evaluation (or LEWIE) employs simulation method s to reveal the full impact of cash transfers on local economies, including spillovers they create to non-beneficiaries. It does this by linking agricultural household models together into a general-equilibrium model of the local economy, in most cases a treated village or village cluster. Our LEWIE analysis finds evidence of significant spillovers, resulting in SCT income multipliers that are considerably greater than one in most cases. Most spillovers accrue to non-beneficiary households. Inte gration with outside markets shifts impacts out of local economies, reducing local income multipliers. Local supply constraints may result in price inflation which creates a divergence of real from nominal income multipliers for beneficiaries as well as non-beneficiaries. The existence of income spillovers reveals that SCT programmes have local economy impacts beyond the treated households, which could yield large benefits for rural developments.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    From evidence to action: The story of cash transfers and impact evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa 2016
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    Cash transfers have become a key social protection tool in developing countries and have expanded dramatically in the last two decades. However, the impacts of cash transfers programmes, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, have not been substantially documented. This book presents a detailed overview of the impact evaluations of these programmes, carried out by the Transfer Project and FAO’s From Protection to Production project. The 14 chapters include a review of eight country case studies: Keny a, Ghana, Ethiopia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, as well as a description of the innovative research methodologies, political economy issues and good practices to design cash transfer programmes. The key objective of the book is to enhance the understanding of these development programmes, how they lead to a broad range of social and productive impacts and also of the role of programme evaluation in the process of developing policies and implementing programmes.

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