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Agrifood systems transformation through a climate change lens

A case study on policy dialogue from Myanmar









FAO. 2022. Agrifood systems transformation through a climate change lens – A case study on policy dialogue from Myanmar. Rome.




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    The agriculture and land use sector (crops, livestock, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture) hereafter referred to as the AFOLU (Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use) sector for ease of reference – features prominently amongst the adaptation and mitigation contributions set forth in the nationally determined contribution (NDCs) – up to 96 and 88 percent, respectively (FAO, 2016a). This paper presents a step-by-step methodology for assessing the overall coverage of mitigation and adaptation policies and measures in the NDCs, as compared against major greenhouse gas (GHG) emission “hotspots” and adaptation “hotspots” in the AFOLU sector. It also provides a gap-filling methodology for estimating economy-wide and sector-specific baseline and NDC mitigation scenarios based on regional trends. The overall objective is to support national policy makers in NDC review and revision processes so as to better align or integrate mitigation and adaptation policies to address sectoral GHG and adaptation hotspots. To date, the sector-specific methodology has been adopted by FAO to conduct a series of mitigation and adaptation policy coverage in the NDCs at the regional-level, including Eastern Africa (FAO, 2017), Europe and Central Asia (FAO, 2019), Asia (FAO, 2020b) and the Pacific (FAO, 2020c), Latin America (FAO, 2020d) and the Caribbean (FAO, 2020e).
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    With 71 million unemployed young people globally and 42 million entering the labour market every year, the agriculture and agri-food sectors must be revitalized to create more job opportunities, while also addressing the growing challenge of climate change. FAO aims to support governments in addressing the high level of youth unemployment by boosting the agri-food sectors that both adapt to and mitigate the effects of climate change. To tackle some of the basic causes of rural poverty and assist the transition to a Green Economy, this initiative aims to foster green jobs across rural economic sectors. Participating youth will be given the opportunity to develop green skills (transferrable and sector-specific) and realize green job opportunities (through formal employment and entrepreneurship), specifically in relation to enhancing local agricultural value chains.
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    Agrifood systems are undergoing a transformation with the aim to provide safer, more affordable, and healthier diets for all, produced in a sustainable manner while delivering just and equitable livelihoods: a key to achieving the UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. However, this transformation needs to be executed in the global context of major challenges facing the food and agriculture sectors, with drivers such as climate change, population growth, urbanization, and natural resources depletion compounding these challenges.Food safety is a keystone to agrifood systems and all food safety actors need to keep pace with the ongoing transformation while preparing to navigate the potential threats, disruptions, and challenges that may arise. Foresight in food safety facilitates the proactive identification of drivers and related trends, both within and outside agrifood systems, that have implications for food safety and therefore also for consumer health, the national economy, and international trade. Early identification and evaluation of drivers and trends promote strategic planning and preparedness to take advantage of emerging opportunities and address challenges in food safety.In this publication, the FAO Food Safety Foresight programme provides an overview of the major global drivers and trends by describing their implications for food safety in particular and for agrifood systems by extrapolation. The various drivers and trends reported include climate change, changing consumer behaviour and preferences, new food sources and production systems, technological advances, microbiome, circular economy, food fraud, among others. The intended audience for this publication is broad – from the policymakers, academia, food business operators, private sector, to all of us, the consumers.

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