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Indigenous women, visible women

Global campaign for the Empowerment of Indigenous Women for Zero Hunger









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    Book (stand-alone)
    Mountain women of the world – Challenges, resilience and collective power 2022
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    Women play a key role in environmental protection and social and economic development in mountain areas. They are often the primary managers of mountain resources, guardians of biodiversity and keepers of traditional knowledge. Empowering rural women is crucial to eradicating hunger and poverty. Yet, due to discriminatory social norms, rural women still face more barriers than men in terms of access to strategic resources and the opportunity to raise their voices, which limits their potential as economic agents and resilience-builders. This publication highlights the stories and voices of mountain women, with a focus on rural areas and mountain tourism, and outlines a path forward to promote their empowerment and help them to realize their potential as agents of sustainable mountain development. It includes on-the-ground interviews with mountain women in eight countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Italy, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal and the United Republic of Tanzania) and the results of a global survey. This study is published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Mountain Partnership Secretariat, together with the Feminist Hiking Collective – a non-profit organization and transnational hub for feminist hikers, and a member of the Mountain Partnership. It marks the 2022 International Mountain Day theme, Women Move Mountains, and is also a contribution to the International Year of Sustainable Mountain Development 2022.
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    Strengthened Economic Inclusion of Women-Led Agribusinesses through Enhanced Access to Knowledge and Productive Resources Including Finance - TCP/ANG/3803 2023
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    Women account for 52 percent of the population of Angola However, despite advances in their empowerment, Angolan women continue to struggle with social, economic and political inequalities that put them in a situation of discrimination and vulnerability Although most of the country’s working age population 15 64 years of age) is composed of women, they represent less than half 34 1 percent) of the workforce The unemployment rate among women at national level is approximately 24 9 percent In rural areas, women undertake at least 70 per cent of subsistence agriculture work However, most of this is informal, either as wage workers or family workers, without secure employment contracts and usually lacking workers’ benefits, social protection or workers’ representation The population below the poverty line rose from 41 percent in 2019 to 54 percent in 2020 Poverty is far more severe and widespread in rural areas 87 8 percent) than urban areas 35 percent) and is two percent higher in female headed households than in male headed households In rural areas, around one third of households are headed by women these represent the majority of households living in extreme poverty, comprising 60 percent of the poorest 20 percent of the population.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Women’s land rights and agrarian change: Evidence from indigenous communities in Cambodia 2019
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    Current changes in land tenure in Cambodia are reshaping indigenous communities agrarian and socio-economic systems. Customary laws that have determined land usage and rights, are now undergoing profound transformations. The commodification of land, influenced by processes of dispossession and alienation, is reshaping communities’ norms and customs. Land, before freely available to users, is now substantially a private asset and as such transferred from one generation to the next one like other assets. Customary laws derive their legitimacy from social systems that are context specific and change with time. This determines their ambiguous character as instruments for resistance and self-determination as well as generators of unequal social relations in rural communities. The experiences from other continents and countries have shown the contradictory and often conflicting linkage between customary land rights and women’s rights to own land. This study analysis the customary inheritance system of indigenous groups in Northern Cambodia, prevalently centred around matrilineal or bilateral kinship, where women used to inherit and own the principal family assets. The research questions focus on indigenous women’s inheritance and property rights as they apply to land, in the context of increasing land commoditization and scarcity. The aim of the enquiry is to contribute to the understanding of the gender implications of these changes, by gaining insight about women’s position vis-à-vis land property, inheritance and transfer to new generations. The changes in land tenure that have occurred in Ratanakiri province during the last decades have resulted in a substantial alienation of land and resources formerly available to indigenous people. Consequently, the area farmed under shifting cultivation has significantly decreased and been replaced by permanent commercial crops, while the increasing monetization of communities’ economy has triggered new processes of social differentiation. Little support has been given to indigenous farmers in order to manage this transition and adapt their farming system while maintaining its sustainability. The legal instruments deriving from the Land Law, which in theory should have contributed to provide formal legal protecting to indigenous land and allow communities to continue using land according to their traditional tenure system were impaired by delays and the obstacles in the practical implementation of the law. External actors, institutional as well as non-governmental, have been actively promoting agricultural practices centred on rapid gains, unsustainable exploitation of land and forest, carpet introduction of monocultures without creating the conditions for the establishment of favourable value chains and market conditions. The changes that have taken place have important implications in terms of women’s role and status within communities: not only because of the farming system transition, but also as a consequence of the increasing influence of the mainstream culture, in which gender norms are more hierarchical and constrictive then the ones in use among the indigenous peoples targeted by this study. Following the evidence presented here, strengthening indigenous women land rights may result from a multipurpose approach that embraces different areas of interventions and actors, detailed in the recommendations provided.

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