Thumbnail Image

Field guide to the control of warmwater fish diseases in Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia












Molnár, K., Székely, C. and Láng, M. 2019. Field guide to the control of warmwater fish diseases in Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular No.1182. Ankara, FAO. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO



Also available in:

Related items

Showing items related by metadata.

  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (series)
    Fisheries and aquaculture in Tajikistan: review and policy framework 2013
    Also available in:
    No results found.

    The fishery sector currently plays a minor role in development of the rural economy of Tajikistan. Its contribution to the country’s Gross National Product was in recent years less than 0.1 percent. Despite the availability of extensive water resources (ponds, reservoirs, lakes, rivers and channels), fish production has fallen from 4 000 tonnes in 1991 to 214 tonnes in 2006. As a consequence, fish consumption per capita has decreased to a level less than 0.5kg, compared to 3kg at the end of the 1980s. Fishery in Tajikistan started with the construction of Farkhadskiy and Kayrakkum reservoirs in the north of the Republic. Aquaculture development received the most attention. In the early 1960s the government carried out a large-scale program of fish farming development. Under this programme aquaculture farms with a total area of about 2 500 hectares (ha) were established. Production technologies included semi-intensive culture and extensive polyculture of carp in earthen ponds. Specie s cultured were common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp H. nobilis, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Aquaculture provided 70-80 percent of the marketed fish before independence. After independence the reform process of the economy led to a partly privatized fishery sector. The poorly managed privatization process negatively affected the fishery and aquaculture sector. Combined with a general economic crisis, breaking of communications an d dramatic decrease in trade with the former Soviet Union states, limited availability of commercial fish feeds and hatchery equipment, limited investment in research, training and education, the privatization process can be considered disastrous for the sector. At present the sector is slowly recovering but the severe winter in 2007/2008 (the coldest in over 25 years) set back the sector’s growth. The principal fishery sector governing body is the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA). Scientific rese arch is mainly carried out by the Department of Ichthyology and Hydrobiology of the Institute of Zoology and Parasitology under the Academy of Science, of Tajikistan and the Faculty of Ichthyology and Physiology of farm livestock of the Tajik Agrarian University. The MoA, recognizing the potential contribution of the capture fisheries and aquaculture sectors to rural poverty alleviation, achievement of food security and generation of alternative employment, has started to support actively the rehabilitation of the sector. Acknowledging that the country cannot develop the sector on its own, the MoA took a leading role in the initiation of regional collaboration, by organizing the first Regional Intergovernmental meeting to initiate the establishment of a Central Asian Fisheries Organization in November 2008. This FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular has three main aims. First, it is intended to inform those interested in fisheries and aquaculture in Tajikistan about the current situation with regard to fishery resources and their utilization in the country. Second, it attempts to provide background information in support of the national sectoral policy and strategy formulation process. Thirdly, it may serve as guidance for future interventions by the government and donors in support of the sustainable development and management of the sector.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (series)
    Regional review on status and trends in aquaculture development in Europe – 2020 2022
    Also available in:
    No results found.

    This review reports on aquaculture development trends and challenges during 2000–2018 in the European Region covering 51 countries including European Union member states. Aquaculture production in the European Region is composed of marine molluscs and diadromous, marine and freshwater fish. It reached 3.4 million tonnes in 2018, while having a value of USD 16.6 billion. Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout combine to give nearly two million tonnes, with molluscs providing 0.7 million tonnes; marine fish species supplied 0.4 million tonnes and freshwater fish 0.3 million tonnes. In Europe, the strongest aquaculture growth has been seen in non-European Union states (e.g. Norway, Turkey, Russian Federation) while several European Union states have diminished production (e.g. France, Netherlands, Italy). The growth in value (5.8 percent) is higher than production (0.9 percent), which is now dominated by salmonids (nearly 60 percent), primarily Atlantic salmon. Mediterranean marine fish farming is mainly for gilthead seabream and European seabass. European cyprinid production in freshwater has increased slightly, where the Russian Federation, Czechia and Poland are the biggest producers. Mussels are the principal shellfish reared, led by Spain, followed by oysters in France and clams in Italy. While publicly quoted companies have led salmon development in Northern Europe, elsewhere aquaculture is done, with few exceptions, by SMEs and micro-enterprises. Mechanisms for financial support exist for aquaculture development throughout Europe but these have notnbeen matched by anticipated results. When unpredictable and time-consuming licensing procedures are combined with extreme competition for space and strict environmental regulations, both growth and investments are discouraged. Technology development focus has been given to structures appropriate for marine off-shore or ‘open ocean’ operation. The use of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for large operations has also developed, both for hatcheries and for farms. Treatment for diseases and parasites remains problematic. Use of the same vaccines, veterinary treatments and disinfectants is not standardised, restricting the best health and welfare practices. Access to appropriate and efficient ingredients for formulated feeds remains a key issue for European fish farming, directly influencing productivity and profitability. The European Union is the world’s largest single market for seafood and the most important destination for European aquaculture production. With preferences declared for wild products vs. farmed, the habits of the European consumer have been studied, indicating evolving influences on purchase decisions. These include the use of additives, food miles, climate change, acceptance of manufacturing practices, cost and access as well as health benefits.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Project
    Improved Technical Capacity of Fish Farmers and Authorities on Fish Feed Development in Central Asia - TCP/SEC/3701 2021
    Also available in:
    No results found.

    Despite the fact that many countries in Central Asia possess abundant inland resources such as rivers and lakes suitable for freshwater aquaculture, fish production is low as a result of the collapse of collectivized farming For this reason, markets are inadequately supplied, and fish is not affordable, resulting in low levels of consumption 1 3 kg per annum compared with the global average of 20 kg per annum ( SOFIA 2016 Cultural habits, combined with limited supplies and high prices, therefore impact on fish and seafood consumption, with negative implications for health, nutrition, and national food security The development of freshwater aquaculture would address these issues by improving diets, regional food security, and by promoting the growth of international trade in farmed fish products at the same time, it would allow smallholder farmers in Central Asia to diversify their livelihoods, and mitigate the negative impacts of climate change on traditional field crops and livestock production Moreover, because women’s participation in the freshwater aquaculture sector is limited, there is significant potential for improving their involvement in the production sector Constraints that limit aquaculture production include farmers’ lack of knowledge of on farm feed management practices and guidelines, a lack of high quality formulated fish feeds, and high feed costs During the 5 th Session of the Central Asian and Caucasus Regional Fisheries and Aquaculture Commission CACFish held in Uzbekistan in 2016 the lack of technical advice on fish feed manufacturing and on farm feed management were identified as priority areas that needed to be addressed to improve production outcomes In response to this situation, FAO proposed a project aimed at improving smallholder farmers’ and Government extension agencies’ knowledge of the nutritional requirements of fish and of on farm feed management practices (with a specific focus on carp and trout as being the most commonly farmed species) The project also sought to review the feed manufacturing sector in the region and support the use of locally available feed ingredients to reduce feed formulation costs This result was to be achieved by surveying current on farm feed management practices, the feed manufacturing sector, and by drafting practical guidelines on fish feeding, to be followed by training courses promoting the adoption of the guidelines in the participating countries The project is part of the FAO regional initiative for Europe and Central Asia empowering smallholders, family farms and youth, facilitating rural livelihoods and poverty reduction.

Users also downloaded

Showing related downloaded files

No results found.