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Guideline for packing, shipping, holding and release of sterile flies in area-wide fruit fly control programmes











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    Guidance for packing, shipping, holding and release of sterile flies in area-wide fruit fly control programmes 2007
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    The International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) is the international treaty under which the International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) are adopted. ISPMs enable the development of technically justified measures for imported plants and plant products, and are intended to harmonize phytosanitary measures applied in international trade. These standards are the accepted reference under the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agre ement). The use and transboundary shipment of sterile insects was not part of ISPM No. 3, “Code of Conduct for the Import and Release of Exotic Biological Control Agents” adopted in 1995, because biological control agents had been defined as self-replicating organisms. Since the implementation of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has largely been dominated by the public sector, this did not represent a problem for the transboundary shipment of sterile insects. However, the lack of regulatory fr amework did discourage private investment in the production and shipment of sterile insects.Over the last three years (2002–2005) ISPM No. 3 has undergone a major revision to update and broaden its scope. In particular, we have been involved in explicitly including sterile insects as beneficials in the revised standard. The revised ISPM No.3 “Guidelines for the Export, Shipment, Import, and Release of Biological Control Agents and Other Beneficial Organisms” was drafted in 2004 and submitted for country consultation. The revised ISPM No. 3 was adopted by the governing body of the IPPC, the Interim Commission for Phytosanitary Measures (ICPM), in April 2005 at FAO headquarters in Rome. Thus sterile insects are considered in parallel to other beneficial organisms by the IPPC through the adoption of the revised ISPM No. 3 and this should facilitate their use, especially in terms of commercialisation of the SIT and international trade of sterile insects.
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    Booklet
    International Guidelines for Transboundary Shipments of Irradiated Sterile Insects 2023
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    Transboundary shipments of irradiated sterile insects have taken place on a regular basis since the sterile insect technique (SIT) was first developed. Currently, this includes tephritid fruit fly pests, moths, new world screwworm, tsetse and mosquitoes. The SIT is under development for other species that may be included in future transboundary shipments. In 2022, the total number of sterile insects shipped was estimated at over 1 trillion in more than 20 000 shipments to 26 recipient countries from 14 sterile insect production facilities. During a period of almost 60 years, only very few problems associated with shipping live sterile insects across borders have been recorded. This includes one case in 2003 of non-irradiated New World screwworm that were shipped to a specific location for field release. There were no significant consequences because of the effective implementation of a contingency plan. The objective of these guidelines is to facilitate the formulation of more appropriate and harmonized regulatory frameworks for safe and timely transboundary shipments of irradiated sterile insects for SIT development and application.
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    Book (series)
    Guidelines for the Use of Mathematics in Operational Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Programmes Using the Sterile Insect Technique with a Special Focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies 2016
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    This guideline will assist managers in the use of mathematics in area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) programmes using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). It describes mathematical tools that can be used at different stages of suppression/eradication programmes. It provides simple methods for calculating the various quantities of sterile insects required so that more realistic sterile: fertile rates to suppress pest populations can be achieved. On the other hand, most SIT programmes ha ve information systems based on GIS that produces reliable profiles of historic information. Based on the results of past activities they describe what has happened in the last weeks but barely explain what is expected in the following weeks. With the help of this guideline current AW-IPM progammes can use that historic information to develop predictive models for their particular conditions to better plan control measures.

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