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Bioeconomic Analysis of the Kapenta Fisheries. Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe and Zambia

GCP/RAF/466/EC SmartFish Project











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    Book (series)
    Report on the Bioeconomic Modelling of Kapenta Fisheries on Lake Kariba
    GCP/RAF/466/EC SmartFish Project
    2013
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    This work on the bioeconomic modelling of the Kapenta fishery on Lake Kariba was conducted as part of a process of joint fisheries management of the fishery between the Governments of Zimbabwe and Zambia, and was supported by the IOC-SmartFish Project under its Fisheries management component (UNFAO). The first part of the report provides an overview of the Kapenta fishery: information about the bioecology of this resource; harvesting systems in operation on the Lake; management systems in both c ountries; as well as some elements of processing and marketing. The second part concerns the biological modelling. A summary of the work that has already been done is provided, together with an assessment of available data. Based on the information available, the dynamic population model was chosen and used (surplus production model of Fox 1970). Thereafter, the results of the biological modelling are presented and discussed. The third section of the report concerns the development of the econom ic part of the model. Previous economic assessments of Kapenta fisheries have been summarized. The results of the Economic Survey, carried out in 2013 to support the bioeconomic modelling exercise, are put forward. Assumptions and analyses to develop the economic part of the model (modelling demand and costs) are also presented in detail. Finally, the fourth section of the document details the bioeconomic model: the way it works and its results. This bioeconomic modelling exercise shows that in 2011, the Kapenta resource was overexploited with an excess of fishing effort of about 40 percent. Fisheries were operating almost at a situation of open-access equilibrium where the rent of the resource is fully dissipated. As a consequence, the fishing industry is achieving very poor economic returns and faced with numerous challenges, is also demonstrating a low level of sustainability. Other main findings of this report concern the overall performance of the Kapenta fishery: the potential of wealth for economic growth, in terms of rent (estimated at approximately US $24 million per year), is completely lost for the economy of both countries; Kapenta resource productivity and thus fisheries production is negatively affected due to overexploitation, in turn leading to a negative impact on the food security status of those consumers who strongly depend on Kapenta in their diet. The fisheries generate a substantial amount of ‘on-board’ work (crew), however, remuneration for this type o f labour tends to be very low compared to national wage standards. Furthermore, lower levels of production have no doubt had a negative impact on employment in Kapenta processing activities that take place along the lakeshore. This situation requires further study, during the Bioeconomic Working Group, and should be based on information provided by the industry on processing activities. In addition to the diagnosis of the Kapenta fisheries and the economic situation of the industry in 2011, this report illustrates the potential of the model in terms of simulation for management purposes and its prospects for development. 5 The main recommendations of this study concern how to improve the bioeconomic model that has been developed. Thus these recommendations are mainly focused on the need to improve the information necessary feed and to develop the model. Recommended approaches will require strengthening partnerships with the industry.
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    Book (series)
    Assessment on the role and situation of women in Lake Kariba fisheries
    GCP/RAF/466/EC SmartFish Project
    2012
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    This report presents findings and recommendations for a study, which was commissioned by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Subregional Office for Southern Africa with the support of the GCP/RAF/466/EC SmartFish Project. Its objective was to obtain a better assessment of the role and situation of women in Lake Kariba fisheries following frame surveys undertaken by Zambia and Zimbabwe in 2011, with the support of FAO. The field study was carried out from 26 August t o 2 September 2012. Data collection methods used included literature review, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and observations. The findings from the study included the following: The authorities responsible for fisheries in Zambia and Zimbabwe do not have strategies to enable the equitable exploitation and use of Lake Kariba resources by women and men. The fisheries policies, documents and practices do not consider the differential position, situation and needs of women and men. The Fisheries Authorities have not kept sex disaggregated records for the people they have given permits. There has not been much coordination and consultation between the Fisheries Authorities and the Ministries of Women’s Affairs which are gender institutional mechanisms mandated to mainstream gender and women’s empowerment in economies of both countries including in fisheries activities. The involvement of women in fisheries activities has been negligible as a result of a variety of reasons such as difficulties in getting both artisanal and kapenta fishing permits; lack of capital to buy fishing gear; cultural hindrances which do not allow women to fish, swim or bath in the Lake; gender stereotypes which consider women as weaker vessels; fear on the part of women to go in the Lake and security risks associated with fishing in the Lake. Women are often involved in fishing methods on the shore or shallow water such as angling. Women have actively been involved in post-harvest activities such as fish marketing, drying and processing. Fishers’ spouses and other women are often involved in the management of fishing operations such as record-keeping, finance management and preparations for fishing trips. Specific women’s concerns and needs are not addressed at the Fisher Associations level in both countries. Women in both countries are not actively involved nor are they meaningfully represented in key governance processes of fisheries of Lake Kariba.
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    Book (series)
    Report of the Technical Group Meeting on bioeconomic modeling of the kapenta fisheries in lake Kariba, Siavonga, Zambia 14-18 October 2013 2013
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    A technical group meeting on the bioeconomic modelling of the Kapenta fisheries in Lake Kariba took place in Siavonga, Zambia, from the 14 – 18 October 2013. This Working Group was set up under the framework of the implementation of recommendations from the joint consultative biannual technical meetings between Zambia and Zimbabwe and those of the Technical Committee set up under the Memorandum of Cooperation between the two countries for the management of the Lake Kariba fisheries.

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