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Report of the Technical Group Meeting on bioeconomic modeling of the kapenta fisheries in lake Kariba, Siavonga, Zambia 14-18 October 2013











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    Book (series)
    Bioeconomic Analysis of the Kapenta Fisheries. Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe and Zambia
    GCP/RAF/466/EC SmartFish Project
    2012
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    FAO supports a joint management process and the development of fisheries on Lake Kariba between Zimbabwe and Zambia. The 4th Technical Consultation Meeting, held in Kariba in 2010, recommended the development of bioeconomic modelling of Kapenta fishery (Limnothrissa miodon). In support of this recommendation, a first field mission was conducted in November 2012 with the support of the SmartFish project. The objective of this mission was to meet with key stakeholders in the public and private sec tors involved in the Kapenta fishery in the two countries in order to:  inform them about the bioeconomic assessment exercise to be carried out on the Kapenta fishery;  underline the importance of their collaboration, in particular the provision of reliable data to fit the model;  find out more about the Kapenta fishery and current challenges;  gather key documents and information required for the bioeconomic modelling;  assess the quality of information requested for the bioeconomic modell ing and identify any gaps;  draft the Terms of Reference for National Consultants who will be responsible for the collection of additional information after the mission. Based on meetings with key officials in charge of the management of the fisheries and with leaders of fishing enterprises in the two countries, the main results of the mission indicate that:  The fishing capacities in the Kapenta fishery have greatly increased since the early 2000s, from approximately 600 rigs allowed on the l ake in 1999 to 1,098 in 2012 (5th Technical Consultation Meeting, 2012). There are also an unknown number of unregistered and unlicensed rigs (illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing);  The fishing effort, reported by the fishing companies, has subsequently increased dramatically (40 percent increase between 2000 and 2011);  The management system in the two countries is based on a licensing system and the payment of an annual fee for access to the fishery, as well as several technical mana gement measures (mesh size, zoning, and brief closures based on the lunar calendar). The industry is also obliged to record and transfer to the management authorities monthly data on their catch and fishing effort. In practice, it seems that there are no real access controls and poor enforcement of regulations. Thus, the fishery currently appears to be open and free for all.  4  The harvesting systems and the technical productivity of fleets in the two countries are relatively homogeneous. C atches per unit of effort have fallen by 35 to 50 percent since 2005;  Qualitative indicators based on the situation of fishing enterprises show that the Kapenta fishery is overfished and revenue from resources is widely dissipated;  Statistical data available on effort, catch and CPUE, as well as scientific knowledge on biological parameters of the Kapenta stock suggest that only a biological modelling based on a surplus production model (such as Schaeffer, Fox, etc.) is possible;  There is an important shortage of economic data on time series concerning ex- vessel prices, costs related to the activities of fishing enterprises, their investment, and their profitability. Consequently, the work of two national consultants to support this process will mainly be focused on the collection of economic data in order to estimate an average cost per unit of effort (night fished per rig) in each country and for each fishing zone. Key documents for the bioeconomic modelling were collected bef ore and during the mission (or just after). A complete list of these documents can be found in Annex C. These key documents and references will form the basis of bibliographical references for the modelling exercise. A questionnaire was developed to collect missing information for the bioeconomic modelling exercise (Annex E). This information was obtained from a field survey and from a sample of fishing companies of different sizes and operating in different fishing areas (Basin/Stratum) in the two countries. A sampling plan was made on the basis of data from the frame survey undertaken with FAO support in 2011. However, it is strongly suggested that this economic fieldwork will be conducted in close cooperation with those responsible for the Kapenta producer organizations in Zambia and Zimbabwe; on one hand for the selection of those companies to be interviewed and to facilitate contacts, and on the other hand, to ensure the quality of data to be collected and transmitted. Forthcoming steps for the continuation of the process leading to the bio economic modeling workshop were also defined, as well the format of the workshop.
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    Bioeconomic modelling of the Kapenta Fishery on Lake Kariba 2014
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    The introduction of Kapenta (Limnothrissa miodon, Picture 1) in Lake Kariba in the late 1960s led to the development of a pelagic fishery shared between Zambia and Zimbabwe, which plays an important role in terms of food security, economic and social development for both countries. Because of its mode of preservation (dried / salted) and marketing (from small sachets of 50 grams), the Kapenta is indeed a source of animal protein widely consumed by rural populations who often have low levels of i ncomes and hence low levels of purchasing power.
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    Book (series)
    Report on the Bioeconomic Modelling of Kapenta Fisheries on Lake Kariba
    GCP/RAF/466/EC SmartFish Project
    2013
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    This work on the bioeconomic modelling of the Kapenta fishery on Lake Kariba was conducted as part of a process of joint fisheries management of the fishery between the Governments of Zimbabwe and Zambia, and was supported by the IOC-SmartFish Project under its Fisheries management component (UNFAO). The first part of the report provides an overview of the Kapenta fishery: information about the bioecology of this resource; harvesting systems in operation on the Lake; management systems in both c ountries; as well as some elements of processing and marketing. The second part concerns the biological modelling. A summary of the work that has already been done is provided, together with an assessment of available data. Based on the information available, the dynamic population model was chosen and used (surplus production model of Fox 1970). Thereafter, the results of the biological modelling are presented and discussed. The third section of the report concerns the development of the econom ic part of the model. Previous economic assessments of Kapenta fisheries have been summarized. The results of the Economic Survey, carried out in 2013 to support the bioeconomic modelling exercise, are put forward. Assumptions and analyses to develop the economic part of the model (modelling demand and costs) are also presented in detail. Finally, the fourth section of the document details the bioeconomic model: the way it works and its results. This bioeconomic modelling exercise shows that in 2011, the Kapenta resource was overexploited with an excess of fishing effort of about 40 percent. Fisheries were operating almost at a situation of open-access equilibrium where the rent of the resource is fully dissipated. As a consequence, the fishing industry is achieving very poor economic returns and faced with numerous challenges, is also demonstrating a low level of sustainability. Other main findings of this report concern the overall performance of the Kapenta fishery: the potential of wealth for economic growth, in terms of rent (estimated at approximately US $24 million per year), is completely lost for the economy of both countries; Kapenta resource productivity and thus fisheries production is negatively affected due to overexploitation, in turn leading to a negative impact on the food security status of those consumers who strongly depend on Kapenta in their diet. The fisheries generate a substantial amount of ‘on-board’ work (crew), however, remuneration for this type o f labour tends to be very low compared to national wage standards. Furthermore, lower levels of production have no doubt had a negative impact on employment in Kapenta processing activities that take place along the lakeshore. This situation requires further study, during the Bioeconomic Working Group, and should be based on information provided by the industry on processing activities. In addition to the diagnosis of the Kapenta fisheries and the economic situation of the industry in 2011, this report illustrates the potential of the model in terms of simulation for management purposes and its prospects for development. 5 The main recommendations of this study concern how to improve the bioeconomic model that has been developed. Thus these recommendations are mainly focused on the need to improve the information necessary feed and to develop the model. Recommended approaches will require strengthening partnerships with the industry.

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