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Economic planning for fishery development









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    Book (series)
    Fish marketing and credit in Viet Nam. 2004
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    Since the early 1980s, exports of fish in Viet Nam have increased significantly while the improvement of domestic marketing and utilization of fish have not received sufficient attention. Improving supplies of fish for urban and rural populations, better quality and safety of products and ensuring food security, particularly for disadvantaged and vulnerable parts of the population, are important concerns which were addressed by studies, the findings of which are presented in this repor t. These findings suggest that the domestic consumption of fish in Viet Nam is probably higher than previously assumed. Given the projected strong economic growth over the coming years, it must be expected that local consumer demand will continue to expand. At the same time, the exportoriented fish processing industry will result in an increased demand for raw materials. This substantial future demand for safe and high quality fish products can only be met if efficient marketing arra ngements are in place. The findings of the studies identify a number of constraints in the present domestic fish marketing channels, which form the basis of recommendations for the improvement of the present marketing arrangements. These include the establishment of fish wholesale markets in large urban areas, establishment of well-functioning assembly markets at important fish landing sites, improvement of the legal/regulatory framework for the operations of fish wholesalers, establ ishment of fish market price information systems, promotion of contract farming/ trading systems among fish market operators certified by local authorities, improvement of fisheries statistics systems for better fish market planning, the promotion of a domestic fish market strategy complementing the export-oriented development strategy and the development of a coordination mechanism for the public sector for fish marketing and fish market management. As far as the fish marketing chai n is concerned, it is recommended that governmental and semi-governmental institutions should play an active role in the improvement of the vertical fish marketing chain. Their cooperation with the private-sector stakeholders is requested as capabilities of the private sector to establish well-working cooperation arrangements seem limited and have not (yet) brought the expected benefits. Publicprivate partnership appears to be the key to success. Credit is widely used for financing m arine capture fisheries, particularly offshore fishing and export-oriented fish culture, processing and marketing. State-owned financial institutions play a major role in financing capital expenditure while working capital requirements are mainly met by informal sources of credit. Future investment requirements and credit needs are greater than current availability. In particular, the domestic fish marketing sector, i.e. wholesalers and retailers, so far have only a limited access to credit and this is perceived as an obstacle to the growth and improvement of the sector. In the case of offshore fisheries, the findings suggest that there should not be any further expansion of credit, and future credit support should focus on making the fleet more efficient and sustainable.
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    Booklet
    Climate-Smart Agriculture in Seychelles 2019
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    The climate smart agriculture (CSA) concept reflects an ambition to improve the integration of agriculture development and climate responsiveness. It aims to achieve food security and broader development goals under a changing climate and increasing food demand. CSA initiatives sustainably increase productivity, enhance resilience, and reduce/remove greenhouse gases (GHGs), and require planning to address trade-offs and synergies between three pillars: productivity, adaptation and mitigation. The priorities of different countries and stakeholders are reflected to achieve more efficient, effective, and equitable food systems that address challenges in environment, social, and economic dimensions across productive landscapes. The country profile provides a snapshot of a developing baseline created to initiate discussion, both within countries and globally, about entry points for investing in CSA at scale. Seychelles is a small island state in the western Indian Ocean, which has developed a high-income economy and eliminated extreme poverty. Agriculture contributes about 2.2% of the country’s gross domestic product with tourism and the fisheries and seafood industries serving as the main pillars of the economy. Agricultural land occupies about 3.4% of the total land area of the country. A large portion of the land area (88.4%) is covered by forest mainly natural and established plantations for commercial purposes. Seychelles is divided into two large agro-climatic zones based on biophysical characteristics- mountainous/forest zone high ground and coastal plateau. In terms of agriculture, two agroecological zones can be distinguished mainly based on soil: upland and sandy soil. Main cropping systems includes food crop-based systems and perennial crop-based systems. Livestock production include goat, pig and chicken. Most crop production is under rainfed or irrigation system. Most farms are under 2 ha with backyard farming done to supplement household food or income. The main crops and products include coconut, cinnamon, vanilla, sweet potato, cassava, banana and tuna. Seychelles has the highest rate of overweight and obesity in Africa due to the shift from predominantly unprocessed traditional foods to a more westernised dietary intake consisting mainly of refined and processed foods. most greenhouse gas (GHG) emission come from the energy sector, followed by waste and agriculture which contributes 0.79% of the total. Seychelles has outlined in its nationally determined contributions mitigation actions in the forestry, energy and transport, and waste sectors. In agriculture, actions to mitigate climate change include: promotion of agricultural practises such as agroforestry which would involve mainstreaming strategies to limit deforestation and increase the sink capacity of forests. Challenges for the agricultural sector include (i) deforestation and unsuccessful intensification, (ii) uncontrolled urbanisation, land clearing, bush fires and population pressure, and (iii) high reliance on food imports. Agriculture in Seychelles is limited by a lack of arable land and extreme rainfall patterns and meteorological events like tropical storms, floods and droughts. Climate change poses serious challenges to the country such as uncontrolled economic and social consequences of floods, land degradation, sea-level rise, coastal erosion, declining agricultural yields, health vulnerability, and increased occurrence of drought. CSA technologies and practises present opportunities for addressing climate change challenges as well as for economic growth and development of the agriculture sector. Identified CSA practises in use in the country include: crop production under shade houses, inter cropping, use of organic manure and mulch, use of weather information, water control through irrigation, anti-erosion arrangement, windbreak and shelter, and use of climate-adapted seeds. Seychelles has several key institutions and policies aimed at supporting and increasing agriculture productivity and advancing CSA practises. These include government ministries and agency structures of ministries, firms operating in the agricultural sector, academic institutions, specialised laboratories and agricultural research institutes and training centres. The Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change (MEECC) serving as the country’s UNFCCC focal point and nationally designated authority to the Green Climate Fund is responsible for country’s climate change plans and policies. On the agriculture front the ministry of agriculture and fisheries is the key government institution for partnerships for climate-smart agriculture work in the communities as well as for policy and investment related issues through the national agricultural investment plan. A number of csa-related policies and strategies have been developed: National Programme on climate change strategy, national strategy for disaster risk management, national biodiversity strategy and action plan and the mainstreaming of climate change adaptation into the country’s strategic plan- a definitive document intended to guide land-use management up to the year 2040. A number of projects that foster the development of knowledge and evidence on the effectiveness of climate smart agriculture in improving food security, mitigating climate change and improving the adaptive capacities of production systems and populations in Seychelles have received support from various donors and financing schemes. In addition, AfDB, COMESA, FAO, EU, IFAD, etc. have invested hugely in several aspects of the climate/agricultural sector of Seychelles which also include the development and promotion of csa innovations. From various sources of climate finance available internationally, Seychelles is currently eligible for only a limited number of these and has not wholly accessed major funding instruments such as the Green Climate Fund and Adaptation Fund. The county is a small island nation whose prospects rely heavily on external demand, especially tourism. This poses major challenges for diversification and resilience. Its commitment to csa is relatively new with limited institutions and sources of funding.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Importance of sorghum in the Mali economy: the role of prices in economic growth, agricultural productivity and food security 2018
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    Mali has generated relatively high levels of agricultural growth over the past few decades. While most attention has focused success in cotton, since the early 1990s, staple food production has increased by an annual rate of 2.4 percent, roughly keeping pace with population growth. Most of the production, however, has been through area expansion, which increased at a faster annual pace, 2.0 percent, than the 0.5 percent increase in yields. Studies have found agricultural growth more effective in generating economic growth and reducing poverty than investments elsewhere, including the industrial sector. Mali shares many of the conditions favorable to successful agriculture led growth, including agriculture’s substantial contribution to GDP, a large smallholder population, and poverty concentrated in rural areas. This report investigated the role that sorghum production has played in economic development and poverty reduction in Mali, with a principal focus on how sorghum and similar commodity prices, as proxies to agricultural income, affect economic growth. Findings suggest that while sorghum and other staple food crops contribute to modest rates of economic growth, the lack of commercial marketing opportunities and “cheap food” pricing policy limit agriculture’s growth potential. The artificially low prices paid to Mali’s sorghum producers suppress farm income and constrain the long–term buildup of investment capital needed to adopt more modern and productive technology and management practices. Moreover, the low pricing has aggravated household’s ability to make any meaningful movement out of poverty. Policy needs to move away from pricing mechanisms that artificially maintain low food prices and increase crop research investments in staple food crops so that the large population of rural Malian household engaged in their production become engines of economic growth and bootstrap themselves from poverty.

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