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Africa Sustainable Livestock 2050: Public resources for animal health services in East Africa

Evidence from Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda









FAO. 2022. Africa Sustainable Livestock 2050: Public resources for animal health services in East Africa – Evidence from Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda. Rome.




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    Negotiated territorial development in a multi-stakeholders participatory Resource Planning approach: an initial sustainable framework for the Near east Region 2016
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    Throughout the Near East, land and water shortages, land degradation, out of date land tenure systems and food insecurity are compounded by asymmetries in gender roles and power, by severe imbalances in the political-military structures within and between countries, by flagrant deficiencies in land and water management and control systems, and by the incessant increases in demand driven by high rates of population growth and urbanization. This interplay of forces and dynamics form a complex hydr o socio-political web that governs the allocation land and water and who benefits from their availability and their ultimate sustainability. The current allocation arrangements of the region's three major river basins - the Nile, the Euphrates-Tigris and the Jordan - are nascent sources of tension, and potential sources of conflict and violence. Political instability that characterizes the Near East continues to intensify scarcity, suppresses growth and engenders poverty and is being increasingl y exacerbated by the impending consequences of climate change. The Middle East is one of the most water poor and water stressed regions of the globe. While the region is home to 5.1% of the people of the world, it has about only 1% of the world renewable fresh water. Today's annual per capita availability of fresh water in the region is only one seventh of its 1960 level, falling from 3,300 cubic metres per person in 1960 to less than 500 cubic metres in 2015. This is the lowest per capita wat er availability in the world. The current land tenure systems are failing to address long-standing problems that include smallholder farmers, landless households and most marginalized groups such as women continue to compete for shrinking natural recourses, while pastoralists are losing control of their traditional grazing areas. Use, management and access to land and water are becoming extremely sensitive matters as the number of users grows. Governments and local actors have often perceived these major issues differently. This requires effort to be made to ensure a participatory approach to decision-making that effectively involves all the local actors concerned in an equitable and balanced manner. About 90% of the land area in this Region is subject to land degradation in different forms and over 45% of land suitable to farming is exposed to various types of land degradation which include soil nutrient depletion, salinity and wind and water erosion. Per capita arable land availa bility in the region is among the lowest in the world where many countries in the region show levels that are exceptionally low (on average less than 0.123 hectares per person) and the range varies between 0.01 hectares per person (Oman, Qatar, Palestine, Kuwait and Bahrain) to 0.34 hectares in the Sudan in 2015. Arable land as a percentage of land area in the region is very low ranging between 0.1% in Oman to 18.4% in Tunisia in 2013. Most of the countries in the region show shares below 10%. O nly Morocco, Tunisia, and Iraq sow percentages above 10%. Irrigated land areas in the region also represent a small share of total arable land areas. In many of the countries in the region these shares are way below the world average. Only Iran (17.4%) and the UAE (12.5%) show high relative shares in the period 2011-2015. The Region’s critical shortage of water and cultivable land, including the increasing pressure on these resources and their degradation makes their efficient management a pa ramount task. It will be necessary in this regard to promote the engagement of all concerned stakeholders in planning and managing land, water and agrobiodiversity. Actual physical scarcity of land and water, even in the Middle East region, is not the only key issue. Conditions of economic scarcity seem to be equally pressing; there is perhaps enough land and water to meet society's need, but there are few incentives for wise, efficient and egalitarian use of these critical resources. Climate change will impinge on this region’s fragile water balances, suitable land for cultivation, grazing land and food production capacities and will exacerbate the problems and issues of food security. Measures, policies, strategies and institutional capacities to mitigate the impending catastrophic consequences of climate change and to improve the societies’ resilience and adaptation to its consequences are needed now. The sooner the regulatory and institutional setups are put in place the easier the task to deal with climate and other risks. It is necessary and vital to rise up to this challenge by enlisting the stakeholders in the initiatives to promote sustainability and efficiency of land and water use and the management of food security issues. An active engagement of concerned stakeholders in planning and managing water, land and agrobiodiversity necessitates first and foremost the engagement of and participation of particularly women and girls and marginalized groups in all wate r and food aspects as they constitute the main agricultural labour force and the most deprived segments of society. Gender and the water and land nexus in the Arab region is an area where there is still relative little information. There is little systematic knowledge about the many means by which women and men manage water and land in the region. Evidence shows that while women in Egypt have a significant role to play in water use in the process of food production by controlling and managi ng water flows in the fields and supervising workers during irrigation, they rarely own the land they cultivate. Rural women in Yemen spend huge amounts of time collecting and transporting water, often up and down steep slopes and coordinate water allocation and distribution for the various needs of the family and the household but they are rarely involved in decision making and management councils that govern land and water uses. Women everywhere in the Middle East evaluate water quantity and q uality and prioritize water for drinking and health and sanitation purposes but they rarely share equally in the benefits of their labor or in the ownership of the land and water resources. This is why an integrated water and land management system anchored on a genuine participation of stakeholders will be crucial in determining whether the Arab world achieves the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and aspirations for reducing poverty and enhancing shared prosperity. Water and land are the c ommon currency which links nearly every SDG, and it will be a critical determinant of success. Abundant water supplies and cultivable land are vital for the production of food and will be essential to attaining SDG 2 on food security; clean and safe drinking water and sanitation systems are necessary for health as called for in SDGs 3 and 6; and water is needed for powering industries and creating the new jobs identified in SDGs 7 and 8. None of this is achievable without adequate and safe water and sufficient suitable land to nourish the planet’s life-sustaining ecosystem services identified in SDGs 13, 14 and 15.
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    Africa Sustainable Livestock 2050 (ASL) - Livestock, health, livelihoods and the environment in Ethiopia. An integrated analysis 2019
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    This report represents an attempt to operationalize the “One-Health” concept in Ethiopia. It is the result of an open and continuous multi-stakeholder and multi-disciplinary dialogue, guided by the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, Ministry of Health, and Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change in collaboration with the Africa Sustainable Livestock 2050 Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Along this consultative process, national stakeholders have innovated under different perspectives. The report provides information on the methodology used to measure the returns of policies and investments aimed at tackling zoonotic diseases, whose outbreaks can have major negative impact on society, such as bovine tuberculosis and anthrax. What is possibly most valuable is that this report represents a key milestone in a longer journey we have all embarked on: we have agreed to build on this report to continue an open and informed multi-stakeholder and multi-disciplinary dialogue about the long-term dynamics of the livestock sector in Ethiopia. Our objective is to appreciate its trends and likely future impacts on society in order to design and implement informed policies and investments today, which will ensure a sustainable development trajectory of the livestock sector in this country in the long-term, for the benefits of the future generations.
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    Africa Sustainable Livestock 2050
    Technical Meeting and Regional Launch, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 21–23 February 2017
    2017
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    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) partnered with the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Ethiopian Ministry for Livestock and Fishery to hold the first Africa Sustainable Livestock 2050 (ASL2050) Technical Consultation on the 21st and 23rd of February 2017 and the ASL2050 Regional Launch on the 23rd February 2017. Representatives from Burkina Faso, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and Uganda, as well as numerous partner organisations, attended the technical meeting to discuss the future impacts of livestock sector growth on Africa’s environment, public health and livelihoods. In the next 30–40 years, growing demand for meat, milk and eggs will drive significant growth in the African livestock sector. This presents substantial risks to the environment, public health and livelihoods, but also meaningful opportunities for economic growth. ASL2050 will help countries to make long term policy decisions to reduce the risks and max imise the benefits of changing dynamics in the livestock sector. Consensus was reached in three key areas at the technical meeting, representatives agreed to: • take a multi-sectoral, multi-stakeholder approach; • establish a national steering committee comprising of a representative from each of the ministries in charge of public health, livestock, and the environment, and an FAO representative; • launch ASL2050, and prepare a work plan within two months, in each participating country. The cons ensus was formalised into a recommendations document that was presented and agreed upon at the regional launch, attended by ministers from participating countries.

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