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Fostering coexistence through a poverty reduction approach








FAO and IUCN SSC HWCCSG. 2022. Fostering coexistence through a poverty reduction approach. Rome, FAO 


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    In Tanzania, in collaboration with communities impacted by large carnivores such as lions, hyaenas and leopards, this case study highlights how a community camera trapping programme was co-developed between the local communities and the NGO Lion Landscapes to deliver benefits to the local communities living with wildlife. The case study focuses on the Rungwa-Ruaha landscape in Tanzania, which is one of the most important wildlife areas in Africa and it supports one of the world’s largest remaining populations of lions and globally significant populations of African wild dogs, cheetahs, leopards and spotted hyaenas. In 2015, the Ruaha Carnivore Project’s research project initiated a community camera trapping programme to create greater links between community benefits and the presence of wildlife in the area. The camera trapping programme has been successful in two ways: not only has it provided data on the wildlife populations present on village land, but it has also engaged and benefited the community, incentivising conservation. While previously, the villages received benefits from the project, now the villagers recognise that the benefits are received because of the wildlife present on their land.
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    Developing a community guardian programme to reduce livestock depredation 2023
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    The case study focuses on the Trans-Kalahari Predator Programme (TKPP), part of Oxford University’s Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, aiming to reduce human-wildlife conflict, particularly livestock depredation, near Hwange National Park in Zimbabwe. The TKPP developed a community guardian program called the Long Shields Lion Guardian Programme (LSLGP). Local men and women were recruited to serve as guardians and protect livestock from predators. They used GPS collars on potential problem lions, alerting farmers via WhatsApp to move their livestock when lions approached. The guardians also hazed lions using noise makers. Additionally, the TKPP introduced mobile communal bomas to protect livestock and fertilize crop fields. The LSLGP resulted in a 50% reduction in livestock losses by lions, and fewer lions were killed in retaliation. Crop yields in fields with mobile bomas increased by up to 50%, improving food security. Local communities showed a positive attitude towards coexisting with lions and were willing to pay for the programs. Lessons learned include the importance of local researchers, communication, community involvement, and flexibility in implementation.
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    Building communities’ capacities to coexist with wildlife 2022
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    The case study comes from Assam, India, where the pilot project was established between Chester Zoo (then North of England Zoological Society), United Kingdom and EcoSystems - India, a regional non-governmental organization (NGO), to learn about the conflict and determine the best way towards sustainable solutions with the impacted communities. This pilot phase became the catalyst for the Assam Haathi Project, which worked with local communities to understand the situation further and identify solutions for addressing the issue collaboratively. The project ran for 14 years, from 2004 to 2018, and conducted many activities to address the human-elephant conflict. This case study highlights a subset of activities that have been conducted by the Assam Haathi Project.

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