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Family farming and rural territorial development in Latin America and the Caribbean

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    Book (series)
    2018 Asia and the Pacific Regional Overview of Food Security and Nutrition
    Accelerating progress towards the SDGs
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    During the last three years, progress at reducing undernourishment has slowed tremendously in Asia and the Pacific. After years of gains in combatting hunger, progress has stagnated in all parts of this vast region. Despite decades of economic growth, nearly half a billion people remain undernourished. Children, in particular, continue to face the burden of malnutrition – this region is home to more than half of the world’s malnourished children – with one child in every four below the age of five suffering from stunting. This is a colossal human loss, given the association between undernutrition and poor cognitive development, with severe lifelong consequences for these children. At the same time, and almost paradoxically, Asia and the Pacific has witnessed rapid growth in the number of overweight children and the serious consequences that entails for their future health and well-being. This double burden of malnutrition sees undernourished and overweight children living in the same communities and households and it can even occur within the same child. Efforts to fight hunger and malnutrition must go hand in hand with those to build and sustain peace and there is an urgent need to accelerate and scale up actions that strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity of people and their livelihoods to climate variability and extremes. As migration from rural to urban areas continues apace, particularly involving poorer families, urban malnutrition is another challenge facing many countries. In summary, what is becoming increasingly clear is that the world cannot meet the 2030 target of zero hunger if Asia and the Pacific – the world’s most populous region – is not leading the way. It is a hard reality but one that must be faced with a united determination to turn things around. For the first time, four UN agencies have come together to jointly assess the state of food security and nutrition in Asia and the Pacific. Together, we hope that the findings of this report will contribute to a more informed dialogue. Without doubt, all stakeholders must make much greater efforts to accelerate progress toward the goals of a healthy and hunger-free Asia and the Pacific. Action is needed now. The sense of urgency cannot be overstated.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    FAO regional strategy for collaboration with Indigenous Peoples and people of African descent in Latin America and the Caribbean
    Revised edition
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    Historically, FAO has engaged in various collaborative efforts with Indigenous Peoples and people of African descent at the global level, which have been strengthened through mutual understanding and respect. These groups are key actors in the fight against poverty and hunger, and the Organization recognizes their valuable contributions to the fulfillment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In Latin America and the Caribbean, nearly half of the rural population is comprised of Indigenous Peoples and people of African descent. They face major challenges and there have been serious violations of their collective and individual rights, while their ancestral knowledge and practices are crucial for the sustainable development of the region. These issues have led to the formulation of the "FAO regional strategy for collaboration with Indigenous Peoples and People of African descent in Latin America and the Caribbean" the result of a long process of exchanges and consultation with their leaders and organizations at the local, national and regional levels, carried out almost entirely against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic since the beginning of 2020. The regional strategy is a useful tool to guide the collaborative actions in the region between FAO, the governments and Indigenous Peoples and people of African descent, with the aim of achieving more inclusive, efficient, resilient and sustainable agrifood systems.
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    Climate Change, Food Security and Insurance Systems for Family Farming
    Brazil case: Climate, income and price insurance programs.
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    Family Farming Insurance Disasters resulting from weather changes cause the greatest economic impacts on the region (70% of emergencies are weather-related). Annual costs of approximately 2.2% of the GDP (base year 2010) are estimated to face disasters, in lack of climate change adaptation actions. The global climate risk index estimated based on information from 1995 to 2014, indicates that 4 out of the 10 countries with the highest risk index are in Latin America and the Caribbean: Honduras, H aiti, Nicaragua and Guatemala. In the region, one third of the population lives in high risk zones due to exposure to geological and hydro-meteorological threats. Climate change is also increasing the dispersal area of plant and animal plagues and diseases, in addition to increasing the probability of outbreaks and intensified effects. Through the enactment of Law 5,969 of 1973, Brazil established the Agricultural and Livestock Activity Guarantee Program (PROAGRO) to protect farmers from rural loan obligations. In 2004, it created “PROAGRO Mais”, for producers associated to the National Program for the Strengthening of Family Farming (PRONAF). Currently, PROAGRO protects medium-sized farmers (PRONAMP), and PROAGRO Mais protects PRONAF beneficiaries. PROAGRO Mais guarantees, in cost operations, up to 80% of the expected gross income, covering financing and up to R$ 20 thousand of the estimated net income; and for investment operations, coverage limit is 95% of the expected gross inco me, deducting the coverage by cost operations. In cost operations, PRONAF beneficiary participation is mandatory, while in investment operations, it is optional. Harvest Guarantee In Latin America and the Caribbean, family farming is very important for the food security and nutrition of all population. Approximately 81% of agricultural endeavours correspond to family farmers and, depending on the country, they provide 27% to 67% of the food. Family farming generates 57% to 77% of agricultural j obs in the region, so its is a very important job-generation sector. To continue boosting food security and sustainable development, family farming has three important challenges: 1) to produce more assorted and nutritional foods, 2) to continue creating safer and more stable jobs, and 3) to favour the appropriate use of resources used in production. Harvest Guarantee is a program that supports family farmers below the poverty line, with emphasis on the Brazilian Semiarid Zone, where losses due to drought are frequent. It was established by Law 10,420, of April 10, 2002. Price Guarantee for Family Farming This is a Federal Government program that offers the family farmer with PRONAF loan, a protection against price reductions. Currently, 51 products have a guarantee price. Rural population in the region lives in an extremely precarious situation because the poorest population plus the population in economic vulnerability situation correspond to 80% of the total rural population. Many family farmers in this percentage have their livelihoods depending greatly on environmental factors and natural resources.

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