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Central Asia Water and Land Nexus (CAWLN) for ecosystem restoration, improved natural resource management and increased resilience










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    Book (stand-alone)
    Guidelines on the Implementation of Nature-based Solutions (NbS) to Combat the Negative Impact of Climate Change on Forestry
    Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Türkiye, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan
    2023
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    Climate change is one of the most critical social and environmental concerns and the biggest threat to economic stability in human history. Türkiye, Azerbaijan, and Central Asia countries, namely Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, are vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. Although average forest cover is only 10.2 percent of these countries (FAO-SEC countries), they play an essential role in climate change mitigation and adaptation, including human well-being and biodiversity co-benefits. The NbS concept has gained attention since the late 2000s. Its practical contribution to global climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts has found significant implementation opportunities in forestry to support the protection and conservation, restoration and expansion, and sustainable management of forests under the impact of climate change. Globally, implementing NbSs to combat the negative impact of climate change on forestry is promoted by the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Paris Agreement, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat), and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Regionally, implementing NbSs to combat the negative impacts of climate change on forestry has been included in the forest policy initiatives of the countries in the sub-region recently. As a result, governments have implemented NbSs through national strategies and programs to address societal challenges by enhancing ecosystem services and promoting human well-being and biodiversity co-benefits. For example, Azerbaijan has implemented afforestation, reforestation, rehabilitation, and restoration activities in forest fund lands on an average of 9 727 hectares (ha) annually since 2000. Kazakhstan aims to save the Aral Sea basin from salinity and improve soil fertility through afforestation activities of saxaul species on 0.25 million ha, and the afforestation area in the Aral Sea will be extended by 1 million ha till 2025. Kyrgyzstan has planned a 1,000-ha annual plantation program to expand protected natural areas to 10 percent. Tajikistan implements 2,000 ha of annual plantation activities to increase the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential through participatory forestry sector development. Türkiye implemented afforestation, soil conservation, forest rehabilitation, pasture rehabilitation, private afforestation, artificial regeneration, and establishment of energy forests activities on 9.62 million ha from 1946 to 2022. Turkmenistan conducts afforestation activities with drought-resistant plant species and established the "Golden Century Lake" in the Karakum Desert to improve the climate conditions and conserve biodiversity. Uzbekistan declared the Aral Sea region
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    Meeting
    Plenary Meeting of the Eurasian Soil Partnership, Report. Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic, 29 February - 2 March 2016 2016
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    The Eurasian region is located in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Caucasus and includes Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. The Eurasian region is diverse in terms of its climatic conditions, soils, flora, fauna, land use and human activities. Soil degradation is driven by complex variables, including climatic factors, economic factors, institutional and national policies. Soil degr adation and problem soils are a serious process that is affecting the soils in the region through various processes, in particular: salinization, erosion, soil organic matter, nutrient and biodiversity depletion, and soil compaction. The Eurasian Soil Partnership focal points and representatives of 13 countries from Eurasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Turkey, Ukraine and Uzbekistan), as well as rep resentatives of ICARDA, ICBA, CIMMYT, GIZ and the Kyrgyz Soil Science Community participated in the Eurasian Soil Partnership workshop, held in Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic from 29 February till 2 March 2016. The workshop was convened under the International Forum on Eurasian Food Security and Nutrition Network and Eurasian Soil Partnership jointly organized by ECFS, FAO, the World Bank and GFAR. The workshop was organized around plenary presentations (in particular on Major Activities of ECFS an d its international partners on food security and sustainable soil management (2013-2015)) and plenary discussions for ECFS collaborative research and educational programs, network activities and future directions. Further discussions held on parallel sessions for Barriers preventing Sustainable Soil Management (SSM) application and recommended SSM practices, Identification of appropriate sustainable soil management practices and systems at regional and national levels and Adoption of Final Docu ments. Under the moderation of Chair of Dr. Hukmatullo Ahmadov, the Challenges of GSP, the outcomes of the EASP activities in 2014-2015, the Introduction to the Implementation Plan for EASP and Assessments of the barriers and shortcomings preventing the adoption of SSM practices at the national level by Eurasian region countries was discussed and was adopted to be included in Bishkek COMMUNIQUÉ as the Summary of barriers to sustainable soil management in Eurasia and possible ways of overcomin g them. Under the moderation of Vice-Chair Dr Gulchekhra Khasankhanova, the working plan 2016-2017 was discussed at an open discussion and was adopted to be included in Bishkek COMMUNIQUÉ as the Workplan 2016-2017. Finally, under the moderation of GSP Executive Secretary Ronald Vargas, the work of the Eurasian Soil Partnership focal points and representatives of 13 countries from Eurasia was summarized via the Bishkek COMMUNIQUÉ (please see Annex 1) which was accompanied with a “Workplan 2016- 2017” (please see Annex 2) and “Summary of barriers to sustainable soil management in Eurasia and possible ways of overcoming 5 them” (please see Annex 3). The text of the Bishkek COMMUNIQUÉ adopted and signed by all Focal Points was presented on the Concluding Panel Discussion of International Forum on Eurasian Food Security and Nutrition Network and Eurasian Soil Partnership.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Restoring mountain ecosystems
    Challenges, case studies and recommendations for implementing the UN Decade Principles for Mountain Ecosystem Restoration
    2023
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    Mountains are home to a variety of ecosystems that provide vital services directly to 1.1 billion people and billions of others living in connected lowland areas. Half of humanity depends on mountains for the provision of freshwater alone. Mountain ecosystems cool local temperatures, increase water retention, provide carbon storage, and reduce the risk of erosion and landslides. Mountain forests, wetlands and grasslands also host and support half the world’s biodiversity hotspots. But the world’s mountain ecosystems are under attack due to their particular sensitivity to the planetary crises of climate change, biodiversity loss, food insecurity, and pollution and waste. Evidence shows that mountain ecosystems are affected at a faster rate than many other terrestrial habitats. This publication, jointly developed by the Mountain Partnership Secretariat at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the United Nations Environment Programme, analyses several mountain ecosystem restoration projects and recommends how the UN Decade’s Ten Principles for Ecosystem Restoration can be applied to mountain ecosystems. Mountain restoration success stories from initiatives that have been selected or shortlisted as the UN Decade’s World Restoration Flagships are also highlighted. As the theme of International Mountain Day 2023 is “Restoring Mountain Ecosystems”, this publication provides an important contribution in addition to celebrating the Five Years of Action for the Development of Mountain Regions 2023–2027.

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