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Proactive approach proved key to survival for the Australian Pacific oyster industry

Genetics in aquaculture: a case studies









FAO. 2023. Proactive approach proved key to survival for the Australian Pacific oyster industry Genetics aquaculture. A case study. Rome.



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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    Proactive approach proved key to survival for the Australasian Pacific oyster industry 2022
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    Since 2008 Pacific Oyster Mortality Syndrome (POMS) has emerged as a significant threat to the Pacific oyster industry globally. The disease was first detected in Australia and New Zealand in 2010. The Australian industry is located in three states: New South Wales (NSW), Tasmania and South Australia, which produce up to 10 500 tonnes per year of Pacific oysters, Magallana gigas (previously classified as Crassostrea gigas). Hundreds of growers operate across the three states, using hatchery-reared spat as the basis for their production.
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    Pearl oyster health management: a manual. 2007
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    The pearl oyster industry is a growing multibillion dollar sector of molluscan aquaculture. The end product of pearl farming, the pearl, is unique to this sector. Pearl production is entirely based upon health. The pearl itself is a product of the oyster’s immune defences as a response to soft-tissue irritation. Today, most disease problems are caused by opportunistic pathogens taking advantage of oysters weakened by the stress of handling, including pearl surgery and sub-optimal growi ng conditions. Further development of the industry will inevitably lead to increased risk of disease introduction, spread or emergence. Against such an unwanted future, health management is the critical line of defence. This publication provides guidance on the management of pearl oyster health and reviews pearl oyster mortalities and disease problems that will be useful for designing programmes aimed at reducing the risks from diseases. Part 1 consists of pearl oyster health – the c urrent interest in it and an overview of the cultured marine pearl industry. Part 2 examines pearl oyster health management and consists of seven sections, namely: (a) introduction; (b) general information on husbandry and handling, hatchery production, introductions and transfers; (c) disease diagnostic protocols dealing with field collections of samples, gross external examination, gross internal examination and laboratory protocols; (d) health zonation; (e) disease outbreak protocol s; (f) national strategies on aquatic animal health; and (g) references. Certain countries in the pearl oyster producing regions have acquired a great deal of experience in health management of cultured species. Experiences from Australia, the Cook Islands, Japan, French Polynesia, the Philippines, China, the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea are included in Part 3 which also contains a general review of pearl oyster mortalities and disease problems.
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    Gene editing in aquaculture 2022
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    The document is a brief of a specific aquaculture innovation. It contains information on the technique and approach used, scope and scale of application, accessibility and the outcome and benefits of the innovation. Gene editing holds significant potential to enhance selective breeding. While selective breeding has been successful, it is limited by the heritability of the trait. Gene editing also prevents interbreeding with wild fish should they escape from a farm and offers the potential for improved growth rates. Current studies into gene-editing cover a wide range of aquatic species – including various salmonids, rohu, grass carp, common carp, channel catfish, Pacific cupped oyster, Nile tilapia and red seabream. However, the regulatory hurdles and the issues of cost and ethical concerns remain the constraints for upscaling.

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