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Agricultural transformation: trends in farm size, crop diversification and mechanization in Nicaragua and Peru











Srinivasan, S.V., Saborío, M. and Morales Opazo, C. 2022. Agricultural transformation: trends in farm size, crop diversification and mechanization in Nicaragua and Peru. FAO Agricultural Development Economics Technical Studies, No. 18. Rome, FAO.







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    International Investments in Agriculture in the Near East
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    2011
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    The food crisis of 2007- 2008 sparked an increase in investment flows to agriculture in the Near East, particularly to countries rich in water and land resources, such as Sudan. These investments have continued to increase during 2009 - 2010, as food prices continue to remain high. This publication was motivated by this surge in international investments in agriculture. and the-. need to answer some key policy questions, through and a brief review of international investments in the region, and an exploratory analysis of the issues and challenges in the policy arena. Three case studies in Egypt, Morocco and Sudan were commissioned by the FAO Regional Office for the Near East. The purpose was to (i) identify past and current investment trends in terms of the actors involved, modalities, size and impact (to the extent that information is available), (ii) assess these investments in the context of the region and its food security challenges, and (iii) identify areas to be addressed by pol icy makers to ensure food security in the long run and provide a starting point to evaluate investments for timely and targeted policy measures. While information on international investments in agriculture is not readily available, the case studies provide an overall picture of agriculture investments, specifically focusing on foreign direct investments. The share of international investments to agriculture has traditionally been very low in the region. With a an average share of 1- 2% of total FDI, this investment is mostly concentrated in sectors other than primary agriculture. In the past few years, investments in agriculture have grown remarkably; however, information on their allocation and impact is incomplete and fast changing. Impacts of agricultural investments in the past have been mixed and concentrated in capital and resource intensive activities which are largely supported by the public sector. Sudan has attracted resource seeking investments, whereas Morocco and Egypt co ntinue to be investment destinations for market seeking investments, in the food processing and fruit and vegetable production sectors. The involvement of the private sector in investment in agriculture is growing but there is still a strong government presence in supporting these investments, often through direct and indirect subsidies in most countries. The historical experience of the region is instructive in terms of improving the efficiency of future investments in agriculture as well as en suring sustainable outcomes. Some of the salient features of international investments in agriculture can be summarized as follows: • Intra-regional investment in agriculture constitutes the bulk of the international investment in agriculture in the Near East. • Countries such as Egypt and Sudan are the largest recipients of recent international investments in food and agriculture, mostly from the Gulf States but also from other countries such as China and South Korea. Other countries in the reg ion are also heavily investing in agriculture and food sectors overseas, and beyond the Near East, including in Asia and Latin America. • Whether investor or host country, the common driving factor for international investments in agriculture in the region is food security concerns. The investment policies of most countries in the region are geared toward attracting investments. They are therefore relatively open and do not differentiate between the different sectors or the different types of ac tivities within agriculture. Agriculture, as an investment category, has been growing rapidly in the last three years, and most countries (especially the poorest) have not yet had the time to align their investment strategies with their national food security objectives. Given the rapid growth in agricultural investment, caution needs to be exercised by investor and host country governments, as well as private investors, to develop sustainable solutions and incorporate a long term perspective to support healthy and profitable investments. Given the diverse national and household food security concerns and resource availabilities, a regional focus on food security may be needed to better formulate and harmonize policies as well as tap into opportunities. The potential capacity for staple food production has its limits, but income generating opportunities are ample. A mix of investments geared at food processing, food service, and other sectors linked to agriculture, could also provide a lternative income opportunities for rural people, as well as increased employment opportunities in urban areas. Within this context, regional initiatives could be very promising in promoting food security in the longer term.
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    Rural transport of food products in Latin America and the Caribbean 2004
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    Transportation is fundamental for the development of human activities, especially production and trade-related activities, including the production and trade of agricultural products. The swiftness and cleanliness of transport have a direct impact on food availability, given the special nature of food of agricultural origin, which is always to some extent perishable. Sanitation, food safety and the economy in general all come into play here, especially the cost structure of the supply chains and the final price of food products. This document presents case studies drawn from 17 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. Duly adjusted and adapted, they may also be useful for an interpretation of transportation problems in other parts of the world. The study covers the region of Central America and Panama (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the Expanded MERCOSUR countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and U ruguay), and the Andean Pact countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela). One country from each of these three regions is also reviewed in detail.
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    Strengthening farm-agribusiness linkages in Africa
    Summary results of five country studies in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda and South Africa
    2004
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    Over the past decade, Africa and other developing regions have been in the midst of tremendous changes. Market liberalisation and governmental decentralisation policies have interfaced with globalisation and urbanisation trends to dramatically transform social, political, economic and cultural lives. Agriculture can no longer remain behind-serving only to meet subsistence food needs. Agriculture has to become a dynamic and integral part of the market economy. If African agriculture is by-passed by the economic transformation going on world wide, then large numbers of Africans and perhaps all of Africa will remain poor and food insecure. The fundamental purpose behind the FAO initiative to strengthening farm-agribusiness linkages is to help transform the agricultural sector in order to accelerate productivity growth, increase income and employment generation, improve food security, and increase competitiveness in regional and international trade. In 2001 and 2002 five country case studies on farm-agribusiness linkages were undertaken in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda and South Africa. The main purpose of the studies was to get an insight into current farm-agribusiness linking arrangements. This included identifying and analysing successful linkages highlighting different methods and practices as well as exploring key factors that have led to successful partnerships. The country studies also contained a brief agribusiness sector overview. The work in Africa began with preparation of five case studies which are presented as summary results as well as individually. FAO work on farm-agribusiness linkages emerged from a broader cross-regional study on farm-agribusiness linkages launched in 2000. The first stage was a series of country studies and a regional consultation in Asia. During 2001 and 2002, case studies and a regional workshop on agribusiness linkages were carried out in Latin America. This was followed by a workshop on strategies for improving neg otiation and compliance capabilities, held in November 2002 in Peru. An expert consultation on strengthening farm-agribusiness linkages in Africa was held in March 2003 in Nairobi, Kenya.

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