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FAO analytical tools and engagement on national strategies help advance climate change adaptation and mitigation










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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    Enhancing knowledge on climate change mitigation and adaptation for food security and nutrition 2020
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    Recognizing that partnerships can enhance and facilitate opportunities that foster research and education projects for developing capacities, FAO and Université Laval, in partnership since 2017, are leveraging their technical expertise and resources to advance actions in the areas of agroforestry, climate change mitigation and adaptation, food safety, and food security and nutrition. This cooperative venture is advancing the uptake of innovative tools and resources to help governments and policymakers overcome new global challenges brought on by climate change, including through combating desertification. The partnership is further contributing to the preparation and training of the next generation of climate change professionals necessary for a future of food security.
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    Book (series)
    Recent advances in climate change vulnerability/risk assessments in the fisheries and aquaculture sector 2021
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    Vulnerability and risk assessment is an important tool that has been used in the fisheries and aquaculture sector to assess the current and potential consequences of climate change in a variety of geographical, environmental and socio-economic contexts and scales. The resulting information on risks and vulnerabilities can then feed decision-making on adaptation, including allocation of resources and prioritization of areas for action. However, there is no harmonized approach nor methodology to conduct vulnerability and risk assessments. This publication seeks to analyze the different existing methodologies in order to contribute to laying the basis of a consistent approach to design future climate vulnerability and risk assessments in the fisheries and aquaculture sector. The publication builds on the findings outlined in the FAO Technical Papers No. 597 “Assessing climate change vulnerability in fisheries and aquaculture - Available methodologies and their relevance for the sector” and No. 627 “Impacts of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture - Synthesis of current knowledge, adaptation and mitigation options” and explores the recent advances in approaches of vulnerability and risk assessments, and the methodological developments to conduct such assessments.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Border and related measures in the context of adaptation and mitigation to climate change
    The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets (SOCO): Background paper
    2018
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    Although international trade is not specifically mentioned in the Paris Climate Agreement, trade can play a facilitating role in achieving the mitigation and adaptation objectives of signatories to the Agreement. Trade policies can also undermine those objectives. The focus of this paper is on examining how the facilitating role of trade can be achieved. One of the challenges created by the ‘bottom-up’ approach of self-declared national mitigation targets adopted in the Agreement is that if the economic costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are internalized in production and consumption, the implicit price of carbon will differ across countries. This creates the potential for trade distortions. Domestic mitigation policies in importers will almost inevitably result in some carbon leakage, i.e. offsets to reductions in domestic emissions through additional emissions generated in supplying imports. But an important distinction needs to be made between carbon reallocation and carbon misallocation resulting from changes in trade volumes. In the reallocation case, trade leads to a shift in production to lower-emitting producers thereby contributing to global mitigation. In the misallocation case, the opposite occurs. This paper analyses how various border measures, including border tax adjustments (BTAs) might be used to reduce potential carbon misallocation. The conclusion is that technical and legal constraints on the effective application of border measures for food and agricultural products to prevent carbon misallocation are extremely challenging and their use could open the door to protectionism. The use of carbon standards and labelling offers an alternative approach to reducing misallocation and promoting reallocation. It poses fewer technical difficulties and reduces the potential for legal challenges. An added advantage of labelling is that it can help to promote changes in consumption that will be needed to reduce the carbon footprint of food and agriculture. The use of the approach could be facilitated through the adoption of international standards for carbon measurement and labelling, such as those being developed through the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Labelling is not a panacea and may have limited effectiveness when consumers base their consumption decisions primarily on the basis of price. For this reason, the use of domestic policy measures that increase carbon efficiency in agriculture (reduce emissions per unit of output) and limit changes in land use that contribute to emissions will also be important for achieving mitigation aims under the Paris Agreement. An increasing number of regional trade agreements (RTAs) have incorporated environmental provisions, with the most common types of provisions focusing on environmental cooperation. Recent agreements recognise the importance of mutually supportive trade and environmental policies, and national commitments to multinational environmental agreements. RTAs could play a supporting role to the Paris Climate Agreement, by fostering international cooperation on climate mitigation measures in the context of freer trade.

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