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Managing taxonomic and functional diversity is the key to sustain aboveground biomass and soil microbial diversity: A synthesis from long-term forest restoration of southern China

XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022










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    Characteristics and dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities along a chronosequence of teak (Tectona grandis) plantations in Mt. Jianfengling, Hainan Island, China
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) is one of the most promising timber species in the tropical and subtropical areas in south China. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play a crucial role in promoting plant growth, enhancing plant stress resistance and sustaining healthy ecosystem. However, little is known about mycorrhizal status in teak plantations. This study aims to characterize the dynamics of AM fungal communities in the rhizosphere of teak plantations at different ages. Fine roots and rhizosphere soils in teak plantations at varying ages (22, 35, 45 and 55 years old), and the adjacent native grassland without teak plantation (CK) were assessed for soil properties, and AM fungal communities using amplicon sequencing technology. With the increase of stand ages, catalase and ammonium nitrogen in the rhizosphere soil were also increased; soil organic carbon, total phosphorous (P), acid phosphatase, available potassium (AK) and available phosphorus (AP) were first increased and then declined at 55-year-old stand. In total, 12 and 9 AM fungal genera were detected in the rhizosphere soil and in teak root samples, respectively. The OTUs data revealed that AM fungi presented in the rhizosphere soil and roots were mostly belonged to Glomus. In the rhizosphere soil, the relative abundance of Glomus was first increased and then declined, while Gigaspora and Scutellospora were declined, although the diversity and richness of AM fungi showed no significant variation with stand ages. In roots, the composition of AM fungal community and its diversity did not change with stand ages, whereas the richness was increased with the stand age. The monte carlo permutation test indicated that AK, nitrate nitrogen and C/P ratio largely explained the shift in the composition of AM fungal community in the rhizosphere soil. The results demonstrated that AM fungal communities in the rhizosphere soil and teak roots shifted across plantation ages. These changes were largely attributed to the age-induced variation in soil properties. Keywords: Tectona grandis; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; stand age; soil properties; plantations ID: 3623633
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    The effects of light, water and nutrient availability on the interspecific and intraspecific competition of Heracleum moellendorffii and Adenophora divaricata
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Since it takes at least 50 years to harvest timber after reforestation in temperate forests, foresters are very interested in cultivating wild vegetables in the forest. In the forests of South Korea, the slope varies greatly, and the amount of light, moisture, and soil nutrients available to wild vegetables differ depending on whether thinning is performed. Therefore, it is necessary to study the response of wild vegetables in these environments.
    In this study, we tried to find a suitable growth environment while examining the effects of inter- and intraspecific competition on wild vegetables. To investigate the inter- and intraspecific competitive effects, H. moellendorffii and A. divaricata were planted in two ways. For the competitive effect of resource availability, shading, irrigation, and fertilization treatment was performed. And we measured the height, root collar diameter, leaf specific weight, biomass, and relative yield.
    As a result, shade significantly increased the height growth of H. moellendorffii regardless of planting methods, particularly those grown in high soil moisture and nutrients. Contrarily, the aboveground biomass of A. divaricata was significantly suppressed by shading, particularly when planted with the other species without fertilizer. When planted together, the interspecific competitiveness of H. moellendorffii tended to be stronger than that of A. divaricata across light conditions. The amount of light, soil moisture, and nutrients and their interactions have been shown to significantly affect the growth of the seedlings, resulting in asymmetric interspecific competition between species. The findings of the present study should provide us with a better understanding of the environmental factors affecting plant growth that are necessary to make forest farming in the understory more ecologically and socio-economically feasible and appealing. Keywords; Human health and well-being, Agriculture, Research, Economic Development ID: 3621831
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    Article
    Plant diversity and regeneration potential in forest protected areas of Sierra Leone
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Protected areas (PAs) around the globe are considered a reservoir for biodiversity conservation and an engine for ecosystem function and services. The regeneration potential of tropical forests in Protected Areas (PAs) is crucial to plant diversity and conservation, amid climate change uncertainties in the 21st century. The current status and future sustainability of PAs in Sierra Leone is uncertain and may lead to the risk of species extinction in the near future. To close this gap, we assessed the seedlings, saplings, and trees species diversity, abundance, richness and regeneration status of four PAs across Sierra Leone. We sampled 60 quadrats in total with each having a dimension of 20m × 20m. We found only a few new species with good regeneration potential in all the forest PAs we assessed, indicating that the resilience of these forests are quite low in the face of degradation. Plant diversity index and soil factors were positively correlated, indicating that a decrease or increase in soil physical and chemical properties could affect speciation. The diameter class distribution shows that the majority of plant sizes fall within the 0-30cm category. The plant species with the highest importance value index (IVI) were Uapaca guinensis (34.71), Heritiera utilis, (37.93), Guibourtia. copallifera (115.50) and Phyllocosmus africana (37.24) respectively. The results showed that the plant diversity status of forest PAs in Sierra Leone is at a crossroad. It recommended that strategic planning and forest enrichment policies be put in place to mitigate future forest exploitation. Keywords: Protected areas, Regeneration, Sierra Leone, Flora biodiversity, Seedlings, Saplings ID: 3471646

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