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Forest Resources of Africa. Part II: Regional analyses

An Approach to International Forest Resource Appraisals









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    Book (stand-alone)
    Forest resources of Africa, pt. 2: Regional analyses
    An approach to international forest resource appraisals
    1977
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    This report describes the present forestry situation of Africa and the future. Country-by-country summary-tables of the most important figures about different aspects of forestry are given in an Appendix. The total closed forest area is 190 million ha or a few million more if a wider definition is accepted. The area of open woodlands of different types is about 600 million ha. The area covered by man-made forests is at least 3 million ha and may be as much as 3.5 million ha in 1976. Of this ar ea, one-third consists of pines and one-third of eucalypts. The planned yearly planting rate is around 200,000 ha. The total gross volume of wood is roughly calculated as about 60,000 million m3 of which about two-thirds is found in closed forest types. If the present exploitation of the wood resources continues large regions of Africa will suffer in the future from a deficit of fuelwood. In many countries the known timber species will also be exhausted. For a successful future the establi shing of man-made forests is essential
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    Book (stand-alone)
    World forest resources
    Review of the world's forest resources in the early 1970s
    1974
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    This report briefly describes the forest resources in practically all countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Pacific. The country notes contain information about natural forest land, man-made forest and inventories. For the countries in Europe and North America only tabulated information about forest land and standing timber is presented. This tabulated information is also given for the countries for which country notes have been prepared. Summarized, the information gives the areas of closed forest in the whole world as 2,800 million ha or 22 percent of land area while the area of open woodlands of different types is more than 1,00') million ha. The area of coniferous forest is estimated as 1,140 mil lion ha or 40 percent of the tota 'i forest area. The area of man-made forests in Africa, Asia (excluding China and Japan) the Pacific and Latin America is around 12 mil lion ha. For the whole world the area may be around 100 million ha.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Sustainable management of Miombo woodlands
    Food security, nutrition and wood energy
    2018
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    The Miombo woodland is a vast African dryland forest ecosystem covering close to 2.7 million km2 across southern Africa (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe). The woodlands are characterized by the dominance of Brachystegia species, either alone or in association with Julbernardia and Isoberlinia species. It is estimated that the woodlands – through their numerous goods and services which include various non-wood forest products (NWFPs) (e.g. insects, mushrooms, fruits, tubers, medicine, fodder, honey, seeds) and woodfuels, which, for simplicity, will be referred to as non-timber forest products, or NTFPs, throughout the publication – sustain the livelihoods of more than 100 million rural poor and 50 million urban people. The charcoal sector alone employs vast numbers of rural people and offers additional income to many poor rural families. Communities moreover rely directly on the woodlands for food and nutrition. NWFPs add vital micro- and macronutrients to local diets and contribute to diversified food systems, while woodfuel is essential for cooking and sterilizing, thus ensuring proper nutrient absorption and providing clean water for drinking. Forests and trees, if managed sustainably, are an important source of resilience for rural people in the Miombo woodlands, supporting households to absorb and recover from climatic or economic calamities and contributing to resolving the underlying causes of food insecurity, undernutrition and poverty by providing nutritious edible products and woodfuel for cooking in addition to conserving biodiversity and water resources, buffering extreme weather conditions and preventing land degradation and desertification. Generally speaking, it is now accepted that forests managed for both timber and NTFPs retain more biodiversity and resilience than forests managed solely for one aspect, e.g. timber and exotic timber plantations. However, a growing population in high need of agricultural land and unsustainable use and overharvesting of natural resources in parts of the Miombo woodlands, combined with climate change impacts (e.g. drought, fires), leave insufficient time for many trees and associated species to regenerate naturally, posing a serious threat to the products and services of the woodlands, and to the livelihoods depending on them. Compounding the problem and hindering development of the Miombo ecosystem, are: i) lack of an enabling policy environment; ii) unsustainable management; iii) limited willingness and ability to pay for and access to energy-efficiency technologies; iv) inadequate awareness and information, including technical capacity; v) high poverty levels; and vi) limited access to microcredit facilities. With the Committee on World Food Security’s endorsement of the recommendations presented in the High Level Panel of Experts Report on Sustainable Forestry for Food Security and Nutrition in late 2017 – which include promoting multifunctional landscapes, integrated food-forestry systems, and research on associated linkages, among other things – forests and trees are expected to play a greater role in future land-use decisions and related policies. This paper provides an overview of these linkages in the context of the Miombo woodlands, in the hope that future land use, policy decisions and financial investments are shaped to support the contributions of forests and trees to the health and livelihoods of communities in the ecoregion. The following key messages were formulated: • Forests and trees, if managed sustainably, are an important source of resilience for rural people in the Miombo woodlands, supporting households to absorb and recover from climatic or economic calamities and contributing to resolving the underlying causes of food insecurity, undernutrition and poverty by providing nutritious edible products and woodfuel for cooking in addition to conserving biodiversity and water resources, buffering extreme weather conditions and preventing land degradation and desertification. • Current data bases referring to the value of the Miombo must be analysed and used as evidence to improve policy-making. • Miombo woodlands may be dominant (spatially), but they have not been addressed as a single unit but as part of the region’s forests. They form part of the overall forestry strategies and no specific mention in the conventions does not suggest that their importance is underplayed. • The management of Miombo will require some changes in management structures, especially in providing benefits emerging from trade in forest products to local managers. • Local forest managers should play a greater role in allocating resources for feedstock for charcoal production.

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