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Participatory rural appraisal- Vulnerability study of Ayeyarwady Delta fishing communities in Myanmar and social protection opportunities













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    The impact of HIV/AIDS on farmers knowledge of seed Case study of Chokwa District, Gaza Province, Mozambique
    Case study of Chokwa District, Gaza Province, Mozambique
    2004
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    HIV/AIDS has a negative impact on all the key factors that facilitate access to local and new knowledge around seed and seed management, including local capacity for seed conservation, access to labor and land. Women, the principal keepers of this knowledge are particularly vulnerable to these impacts. Based on fieldwork carried out in Chókwè District of Gaza Province, southern Mozambique, this study reveals that female-headed households have a significantly smaller area of cultivated land, plant fewer crops and have access to less family labor. These factors all relate to seed security, suggesting that female-headed households are less seed secure than maleheaded households. However, it is difficult to determine whether this is caused by poverty (femaleheaded households are likely to be poorer than male-headed households) or the impact of HIV/AIDS. Statistical analysis of the data collected suggests that HIV/AIDS affected households, especially those households car ing for orphans, experienced constraints in access to seed and seed information. These issues should be addressed urgently before the erosion of local knowledge undermines seed security and thereby food security. New agricultural projects, especially those relating to seed, should be formulated to target and relieve some of the farm level constraints faced by HIV/AIDS affected households, especially those households caring for orphans and femaleheaded households.
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    Gender in Emergency Food Security, Livelihoods and Nutrition
    A Compendium of What We Know; and Recommendations on What We Need to Know for Enhanced Gender Analysis
    2012
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    The primary objective of drafting this report is to share the existing recent literature on the traditional and changing gender roles within pastoral, agro-pastoral, riverine, urban and IDP communities in Somaliland, Puntland and South Central. This informs identification of data gaps and recommendations. FSNAU intends to put this information to use in several ways: to strengthen routine FSNAU data collection tools and analysis from a gender perspective and to give strategic input into a planned FSNAU stand-alone gender study on Somalia. The focus of the stand-alone study is to gather gender information on Somalia food security, nutrition and livelihoods that will complement FSNAU’s routine data collection processes. Additionally, the Compendium will provide reference and baseline understanding of the gender trends in Somalia to support the Food Security, Livelihoods and Nutrition Teams of FSNAU in establishing measurable gender indicators and improve approaches for collecting gender-s pecific information and methodologies, and addressing the existing gender imbalance in enumerators. In collating the information available, the authors of this report, conducted a desk review of the documented literature in Somalia since 2007. A primary source was FSNAU data which has been supplemented by other available sources. The review revealed that there is a wealth of information on traditional and changing gender roles and responsibilities in food security, livelihood and nutrition but t his had not been compiled into a user-friendly central reference. Some of these findings include; • Both men and women make significant but distinct contributions to the household economy. • The past and existing nutrition surveys focus almost entirely on children under five years, pregnant and lactating mothers and women of reproductive age. An understanding of the nutritional status of other vulnerable groups such as older men and women, adolescent girls and chronically sick males and females (of all ages) is lacking. • Somalia men and women are both active in food production: men 54.1 percent and women 45.9 percent (FAO State of Food and Agriculture Report - 2010/2011). Data 2010. • The synergistic male-female partnership in cropping and protein production is under stress due to competition for grazing, land and water. • A disproportionate number of men dying in conflict as well as more male migration had contributed to the increased number of female-headed households (FHHs). There have been resulting changes in intra-household livelihood roles. • Gender-specific security and protection concerns impact internally displaced persons (IDPs) and urban migrants. • Males predominate in camel/cattle production and sale: females sell and process milk. • Females predominate in all aspects of sheep and goat (shoat) production with shared male and female roles in marketing as well as butchering. • There is a gender divide in marketing: men sell for export and women sell for local con sumption. • Cropping involves a mix of gender-specific and shared tasks. • Local vegetable, milk and cereals markets in many areas are dominated by women. • Milling, commercial transport, agents and interlocutors are mainly men. • Women are responsible for erecting and tear-down of shelters, foraging for firewood and fodder. • Presence of a son gives a woman better access to livestock/assets if her husband dies. • Inter-clan conflicts deter men from participating in trade and instead open an opp ortunity for women to undertake more trade, as women are considered peacemakers, with no primary role in inter-clan conflict. • There are indications that women are increasingly using loans as a coping strategy. In some areas as many women as men are getting loans. • More men are entering traditionally female areas of petty trading and house assembly. • An increasing number of women are active in the formal and non-formal sectors and are diversifying how they earn income. Most specifically, wome n are very active in petty trade and increasingly active as casual workers, leaving less time for good parenting. • There is evidence that girls are pulled from school to allow women to earn. In light of the above, the Compendium clearly supports the need for a gender stand-alone survey and encourages immediate action to recruit additional female enumerators to reduce the current gender gap.
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    Gender differences in assets 2011
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    Agriculture can be an important engine of growth and poverty reduction. But the sector is underperforming in many countries in part because women, who are often a crucial resource in agriculture and the rural economy, face constraints that reduce their productivity. In this paper we document the gender gap in access to and ownership of most inputs, asset and services important for agricultural activities. We focus in particular on education, land, livestock, financial services, modern inputs, in formation and extension and labour. Across assets and inputs women are disadvantaged. The gap in education has narrowed over the last decades but substantial gaps remain in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. For land, the key farm household asset, there are significant gender differences in access to land across regions. Moreover female-headed households also typically operate smaller land holdings than male-headed households, across regions. There are also significant and systematic gender diff erences with regard to livestock, financial services, modern inputs, information and extension and labour. Gender differences in assets are generally interlinked, for example when female farmers have lower levels of technology this is due to their having less access to land, less access to labour and less access to extension services, not their sex. This also helps explain why women farmers do not necessarily benefit from access to extension services, as some studies have found. The implication of this is that selective interventions are unlikely to be effective.

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