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Recovery of tree communities on degraded tropical forests after restoration planting

XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022









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    Article
    The influence of over-mature, degraded Nothofagus forests with strong anthropic disturbance on the quality of an andisol and Its gradual recovery with silvopasture in southwestern South America
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    The increasing demand for timber and non-timber products from native forests in Chile and the cattle grazing has augmented the rate of degradation of these ecosystems. This process results in the need to know which of the dynamic variables are involved in its regulation. Soil quality indicators like soil organic carbon (SOC), soil microbial respiration (SMR), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), potential net N mineralization (N-min), and nitrification (N-NO), soil aggregates, and light fraction (LF), were evaluated at two different depths of the soil in Nothofagus obliqua (deciduous) and mixed N. dombeyi - N. obliqua (evergreen-deciduous) forests, where a 30- ha silvopastoral trial was established, after this evaluation, in early 2016. The SOC, SMR, MBC, N-min and N-NO were significantly higher in the N. obliqua forest than the mixed forest, 8%, 17%, 17%, 40%, 20%, respectively (p<0.05). The dry weight in soil fractions did not present differences between forest types. C and N contents in the LF (labile, un-decomposed organic matter of plant origin) were higher in the deciduous forest, 9% and 20%, respectively (p<0.05). Our results suggest that soil quality was favored by the quality of organic matter in the site dominated by deciduous species, which translates into more favorable conditions for the activity of microorganisms, nitrogen dynamic, and C and N content in the light faction. The intrinsic characteristics of the plant residues associated with higher rates of decomposition, can stimulate the activity of the biota and especially the soil microorganisms, which would lead to higher values of the different indicators evaluated. This novel silvopastoral system will likely help restore the most degraded sites through improvement of the soil quality. This kind of information allows obtaining knowledge of the forest areas and their sustainability, mainly for the planning of long-term, durable silvopastoral practices. Keywords: Forest degradation, Nothofagus obliqua, N. dombeyi, silvopastoral systems, Temperate Forest, Volcanic soil ID:3484562
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    Article
    Restoration of diversity and regeneration of woody species through area exclosure: The case of Maun International Airport in northern Botswana
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Deforested and degraded areas can be cheaply and conveniently restored through establishment of exclosures. An area exclosure excludes animals and humans from accessing an area to promote natural regeneration of plants and rehabilitate ecological condition of the area. The study was aimed at: (i) determining the diversity (species richness, diversity and evenness); (ii) assessing the stand structure (densities); and (iii) assessing regeneration status of woody species inside and outside exclosed Maun International Airport, northern Botswana. Vegetation sampling was conducted from April to May 2018. A total of 48 and 37 quadrats of 20 x 20 m were laid down at 50 m intervals along transect lines inside and outside Maun International Airport, respectively. Identity, number of all live individuals and height of all woody species were recorded in all the quadrats. The diversity of all woody species was analysed by using Shannon Diversity Index (H’) and regeneration status of each woody species was assessed using frequency distribution of height class. The diversity, evenness and species richness were significantly higher inside than outside Maun International Airport. Colophospermum mopane was the most abundant species both inside (75% of all woody species) and outside (96% of all woody species) Maun International Airport. More species showed healthy regeneration status inside than outside Maun International Airport. The inside of Maun International Airport recorded more alien invasive woody species compared with the outside, owing to its original use as a residential area. The local communities might have introduced these species as ornamental trees. This study has demonstrated the important role exclosures play in enhancing woody species richness, diversity and evenness as well as facilitating regeneration of woody species. This study has highlighted that degraded woodlands and other similar ecosystems can be cheaply and conveniently restored through establishment of exclosures. Keywords: Density; evenness; population structure; regeneration ID: 3624015
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    Advancing the role of natural regeneration in large-scale forest and landscape restoration in the Asia-Pacific region
    19-21 June 2017, Nanning, Guangxi Province, China
    2018
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    There are numerous global, regional, national and even subnational targets for increasing forest area and forest restoration. In light of these global targets and emerging ambitious national commitments, it is imperative to develop low-cost strategies and techniques for landscape restoration. The most widely used restoration strategies involving planting of tree seedlings are often costly and their application for restoring vast expanses of degraded forest lands in the region may be limited. Case studies and experiences with natural regeneration from the region have shown that natural regeneration significantly reduces the cost of restoration in areas that meet certain conditions. Native species that are adapted to the prevailing conditions re-establish on their own with some assistance, achieving accelerated growth in accordance with natural succession, leading to the recovery of native ecosystems. Restoration strategies based on natural regeneration also provide low-cost opportunities for conserving biodiversity and enhancing ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration and watershed protection. Despite these economic and environmental advantages, natural regeneration is often overlooked when restoration policies and programmes are designed for a number of reasons. These include lack of its recognition as a viable restoration option; perverse incentives favouring clearing of young secondary growth for plantation development or other land uses; lack of institutional support by government agencies and other organizations; unclear tenure and property rights; lack of incentives for local communities; and uncertainty about the restoration processes and outcomes. This publication aims to share information on the outcome of the regional workshop, entitled ‘Promoting the Role of Natural Regeneration in Large-scale Forest and Landscape Restoration: Challenges and Opportunities, held in Nanning, Guangxi Province, China, from 19 to 21 June 2017, which was organized to better understand the challenges and opportunities for natural forest regeneration and to promote its inclusion as a major component of large-scale restoration initiatives.

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