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Preventing the next zoonotic pandemic

Strengthening and extending the One Health approach to avert pandemics of animal origin in the region











FAO. 2020. Preventing the next zoonotic pandemic: Strengthening and extending the One Health approach to avert pandemics of animal origin in the regionFAO COVID-19 Response and Recovery Programme: Europe and Central Asia. Budapest. 



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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    FAO COVID-19 Response and Recovery Programme - Preventing the next zoonotic pandemic
    Strengthening and extending the One Health approach to avert animal-origin pandemics
    2020
    The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) originated from an animal source, as have an estimated 60 percent of human infectious diseases. The pandemic emphasizes the need to prepare for, prevent, detect and respond to such diseases in areas where the next pandemic is likely to take hold. The risk is highest where there is close interaction between wildlife and intensifying livestock or agricultural production, and is often exacerbated where agriculture has encroached upon or put pressure on natural ecosystems. Particularly risky “spillover settings” include live animal markets and regions where there is a rise in wild meat consumption. The general overuse of antimicrobial drugs has caused a surge in antimicrobial resistance (AMR), adding to the risk of new or untreatable diseases. Preventing dangerous spillovers involves working with those communities living in high-risk hotspots. Family farmers are most at risk, often women and children, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, where medical, veterinary and animal production services are limited and food safety control systems are ill-equipped to prevent, detect and respond to emerging and resurgent zoonotic diseases.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Reducing pandemics risks at source: Wildlife, environment and One Health foundations in East and South Asia 2022
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    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are infections associated with new or significantly-expanded geographic scope or spread of zoonotic, vector-borne, and drug-resistant pathogens. The majority of EIDs have animal origins, and of those, the most recent EIDs are tied to wildlife. They are also increasing in frequency, with recurring outbreaks causing epidemics and pandemics exacting tremendous health and economic costs on individuals, nations, and the global economy. Strategies to reduce EID risks and better prevent future events from happening, need to comprehensively include wildlife - and the multiple interactions between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans - in a holistic way. ‘One Health’ addresses this, with the goal of achieving optimal health outcomes while recognizing the interconnections between people, animals, plants, and their shared environments. In this report, we explore the root causes of pathogen spillover and disease emergence from wildlife to humans in East and South Asia, we review existing strengths and gaps of One Health systems, and provide recommendations to improve their performance by better including wildlife considerations. We describe human practices that increase exposure to pathogens, and specific, tangible actions to reduce risks along the chain, prioritizing the wildlife trade, food systems, and the environment. The report argues that investing in prevention of wildlife-originated human EIDs at source is extremely cost-effective, and is thus to be viewed as a public good, with benefits within and across national boundaries. The cost of inaction, by contrast, is very high.
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    Policy brief
    Reducing pandemic risks at source: Wildlife, environment and One Health foundations in East and South Asia
    Executive Summary
    2022
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    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are infections associated with new or significantly-expanded geographic scope or spread of zoonotic, vector-borne, and drug-resistant pathogens. The majority of EIDs have animal origins, and of those, the most recent EIDs are tied to wildlife. They are also increasing in frequency, with reoccurring outbreaks causing epidemics and pandemics exacting tremendous health and economic costs on individuals, nations, and the global economy. Strategies to reduce EID risks and better prevent future events from happening, need to comprehensively include wildlife - and the multiple interactions between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans - in a holistic way. ‘One Health’ addresses this, with the goal of achieving optimal health outcomes while recognizing the interconnections between people, animals, plants, and their shared environments. In this report, we explore the root causes of pathogen spillover and disease emergence from wildlife to humans in East and South Asia, we review existing strengths and gaps of One Health systems, and provide recommendations to improve their performance by better including wildlife considerations. We describe human practices that increase exposure to pathogens, and specific, tangible actions to reduce risks along the chain, prioritizing the wildlife trade, food systems, and the environment. The report argues that investing in prevention of wildlife-originated human EIDs at source is extremely cost-effective, and is thus to be viewed as a public good, with benefits within and across national boundaries. The cost of inaction, by contrast, is very high.

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