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Impact of foreign assistance on institutional development of national agricultural research systems in Sub-Saharan Africa











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    Aquaculture extension in Sub-Saharan Africa 2004
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    As part of a regional review of aquaculture being undertaken by the Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service, through the Regional Office for Africa (Accra, Ghana) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), this document reviews the recent history of aquaculture extension in five representative countries of sub-Saharan Africa. Country reviews were commissioned, analysed and synthesized. A number of extension guides, field manuals and dissemination tools were comp ared. Each of the reviewed countries has a similar history of aquaculture development, beginning with colonial experiments in the 1950s, through a period of neglect following independence in the 1960s, a period of intense international involvement in small-scale rural development (including aquaculture) in the 1970s and 80s ending in a period of reflection on results in the 1990s. Many of these past projects were driven by foreign donors interested primarily in poverty alleviation and working on the basis of national food security targets, ignoring the desires and constraints faced by would-be producers and beneficiaries. Working within the broader context of rural development, rather than the somewhat simpler world of commercial aquaculture technology has created problems for poorly trained and motivated extension agents. New participatory paradigms have been incorporated into policy and planning, but are generally not reflected in the day-to-day work of either research or extension, leading to low rates of adoption and project sustainability. Extension systems based on the Training and Visit model continue to dominate aquaculture extension in Africa, but more sustainable gains made through participatory approaches are leading more and more governments in the direction of farmer-led approaches.
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    Document
    Qualitative research and analyses of the economic impacts of cash transfer programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa
    Synthesis Report
    2015
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    This report synthesizes the analysis and findings of a set of six country case studies that explore the impact of cash transfer programmes on household economic decision-making and the local economy in sub-Saharan Africa. The six countries are Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi and Zimbabwe. The research is being carried out under the auspices of the “From Protection to Production” (PtoP) project, a four-year collaboration between the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the United King dom Department for International Development (DFID) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The PtoP is part of a larger effort, the Transfer Project – jointly implemented by UNICEF, Save the Children and the University of North Carolina – that supports the implementation of cash transfer evaluations in sub-Saharan Africa. The research is intended as a complement to other studies of cash transfer programmes that focus more on social indicators such as health and e ducation outcomes. It therefore covers themes such as the extent to which cash transfers can help households to manage risk, overcome credit constraints, make productive investments and improve their access to markets, as well as their effect in stimulating local economies. It also refers to analysis from other studies, in particular those conducted under the PtoP project, in order to strengthen the integration of data. The six country case studies were carried out by Oxford Policy Management ( OPM), a development consultancy in the United Kingdom, in partnership with local research organizations and researchers. Each study had an individual lead researcher from OPM; the overall project managers for the six-country study were Simon Brook and Valentina Barca of OPM. The technical Team Leader was Jeremy Holland, an OPM Associate. Pamela Pozarny of FAO provided technical oversight and contributed to the field research in all six countries, and to this final synthesis report.
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    A contribution to the analyses of the effects of foreign agricultural investment on the food sector and trade in Sub-Saharan Africa 2011
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    The growing interest of foreign investors in Sub-Saharan Africa’s vast agricultural potential raises concerns about the investment impacts on the food sector and the economy at large. This paper analyzes the likely effects of foreign agricultural investment in Sub-Saharan Africa with a focus on the impacts on the food sector by simulating the effects of the reduction of investment risks triggering an entry of foreign investment flow. The analysis employs the Global Trade Analysis and Policy (GTA P) model and simulates three investment scenarios that affect land uses, labour market conditions, and technological progress. The data are aggregated over three main sectors: food, manufacturing and services. Simulation results show that although foreign agricultural investment in Sub-Saharan Africa would lead to an increase in food prices and a decline in domestic food supply that would in turn cause an increase in food imports, the increases in factor returns and in employment would boost hou seholds’ real income to offset the loss from higher food prices. The positive income effects would be magnified if the agricultural investment brought technological progress to the food sector. Moreover, foreign agricultural investment would widen the current account deficit but improve terms of trade, whose effect on total welfare is large. The improvement of the terms of trade in the model is mainly due to a strong increase in the export price of tradable goods from the manufacturing sec tor. The service sector would unambiguously experience the strongest output growth as it benefitted from the formation of capital goods. Overall, the simulation results show that entry of foreign agricultural investment would generate a net welfare gain.

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