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Small livestock development in Rwanda: Policy analysis of pig and poultry value chains









FAO. 2023. Small livestock development in Rwanda: Policy analysis of pig and poultry value chains. Rome.



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    Policy brief
    Small livestock development in Rwanda: enhancing the policy environment for pig and poultry value chains 2023
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    In recent years, much has been accomplished to develop the small livestock subsector in Rwanda. The Livestock Master Plan (LMP) 2017–2022 and the Fourth Strategic Plan for Agricultural Transformation (PSTA 4) 2018–2024 have proposed and attracted investments that have improved productivity of small livestock value chains including better piggery and poultry genetics, feeds and health services. However, this subsector still faces many problems related to policy and the enabling environment. Those problems were identified by a policy analysis involving stakeholder consultations in September and October 2022 and a national policy dialogue held in November 2022, jointly organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Ministry of Agricultural and Animal Resources (MINAGRI). The study was supported by the European Union under the FAO-led TAP-AIS project “Developing capacities in agricultural innovation systems: scaling up the Tropical Agriculture Platform Framework”. The main problems facing small livestock development in Rwanda include: - insufficient access to affordable, suitable and nutritious animal feeds; - limited or poor market infrastructure and processing facilities for animal products; - limited extension and animal health services to control disease outbreaks; - financial constraints to smallholder farmers’ participation in different small livestock value chains; - insufficient means of transport and logistics services for live animals and animal products; - limited access to improved animal breeds; and - poor links between small livestock farmers, feed producers and animal processing facilities.
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    Policy brief
    Enhancing the animal feed value chain for pig and poultry production in Rwanda 2023
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    Insufficient availability and access to affordable and nutritious animal feeds constitute the most severe problem in pig and poultry value chains in Rwanda. According to a policy study conducted in five districts of Rwanda in September and October 2022, this problem leads to increased malnutrition of pigs and poultry reared in the country, reduced number of pig and poultry populations due to drop out of farm owners from the business, increased number of thieves from pig and poultry farms, increased human malnutrition due to deficiency of animal resources proteins and of course increased poverty. Furthermore, this problem is aggravated by recent unusually high price fluctuations of animal feeds in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, pig starter feeds in Kigali costed 455 RWF/kg in September 2022, an increase of 82 percent from 250 RWF/kg in 2019. Feed price is considered as a major concern for farmers as well as feed millers. The root causes of this problem affect both the input and output sides of the animal feed value chain, including: 1. Low productivity in maize and soybeans in Rwanda compared to the Strategic Plan for Agriculture Transformation (PSTA4) and Livestock Master Plan targets, and competition between human consumption and use in animal feeding which leads to insufficient or expensive inputs in the feed industry. 2. Uneven availability of animal feeds across districts in Rwanda, especially in remote areas where prices for pig and poultry feeds are significantly higher than in areas around the feed mills that are concentrated in Kigali, Rwamagana and Musanze towns only. 3. Very weak distribution channels for animal feeds, particularly in remote areas, and a lack of trust regarding feed products quality. 4. Varying quality of animal feeds, with negative impacts on animal nutrition. 5. Limited collaboration among farmers and weak associations at farmer level, leading to inefficient procurement of animal feeds. 6. Weak collaboration between feed millers regarding import of feed inputs causing inefficient supply chain. 7. Fragile collaboration between farmers and feed millers
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    National agricultural innovation system assessment in Rwanda: the small livestock sub-sector 2023
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    An assessment of the Agricultural Innovation System (AIS) of Rwanda’s small livestock sub-sector was conducted in 2021. This report describes the AIS of the small livestock sub-sector in terms of key functions, the underlying causes of their performance, and opportunities for improvement. It presents priorities and entry points for strengthening the AIS of the small livestock sub-sector in Rwanda, with focus on key organisations and the policy level. The assessment focused on three cases studies of innovation in the small livestock sub-sector: The Sasso dual breed chicken by Uzima Chicken Limited, with focus on small-scale farmers’ poultry production; piggery/artificial insemination by the Centre for Agriculture Enhancement (CPPA) in Kisaro, for genetic improvement in pigs for small-holder farming; and the animal feed industry by Gorilla Feed Co., Limited, a cross-cutting business for animal production in the country. The report makes nine concrete recommendations for strengthening the small livestock sub-sector regarding collaboration and coordination, capacity development and at the policy level. It identifies two national associations on which to focus the TAP-AIS projects’ capacity development phase: Rwanda Pig Farmers Association (RPFA) and Rwanda Poultry Industry Association (RPIA).

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