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African swine fever, a transboundary threat that requires regional and international cooperation










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    Book (series)
    Preparation of African swine fever contingency plans 2009
    African swine fever (ASF) is a viral haemorrhagic disease of swine generally characterized by high morbidity and high mortality. The disease is known to have devastated swine farming in highly industrialized, small commercial and backyard swine holdings, with concomitant closure of animal and meat export markets, ravaged swine populations, and destroyed individual and family livelihoods. ASF is one of the more difficult transboundary animal diseases to control as no successful vaccine has yet be en developed; it is transmitted by direct contact between infective and susceptible swine, and by infected soft ticks of the Ornithodoros genus; and it has several wildlife reservoirs in areas where it is endemic. The ASF virus can last for long periods in contaminated environments or cured pork products, which can be a source of infection or introduction of the disease to distant areas.The disease, present in most of sub-Saharan Africa, made its way to Europe in the late 1950s, where campaigns for its eradication on the mainland took more than 30 years to conclude. In the 1970s and 1980s, the disease was introduced several times into a few countries in the Americas, with eventual elimination only after national and international concerted action. In mid-2005 ASF was first reported in the Caucasus and spread within the region, causing concern to swine producers in Eastern Europe and beyond.This manual is based on the manual on ASF (FAO Animal Health Manual No. 11) published in 2001, updated to capture new knowledge and adapted to cover European settings.
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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    Biosecurity practices and border control to stop the spread of African swine fever 2020
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    African swine fever (ASF) is a devasting haemorrhagic viral disease affecting domestic and wild pigs. Outbreaks of ASF result in massive losses of swine and pork products, and have economically catastrophic consequences in countries with a developed commercial pig farming sector. The only means to control the disease is through the elimination of infected pig populations and strict control of the movement of animals and pork products. ASF is endemic in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Since ASF’s emergence in Georgia in 2007, the disease has spread to many countries in Europe. In August 2018, ASF was first detected in Asia . The disease was reported in China, the country with the world’s largest inventories of domestic pigs. China is also the world’s leading consumer of pork meat. In Europe and Asia, wild boar have become an epidemiological reservoir for the virus, as the species can contract, carry and spread ASF. Similar to the situation in Europe, there is a heightened risk of ASF endemicity in East and Southeast Asia and further progressive global spread, with unpredictable consequences. FAO supports member countries in ramping up prevention and preparedness efforts and response to outbreaks, to prevent further spreading of the disease.
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    Book (series)
    African swine fever in wild boar
    Ecology and biosecurity
    2022
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    African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating haemorrhagic viral disease affecting domestic and wild pigs of all ages and sexes. This disease causes massive economic losses, threatens food security and trade, and presents a serious challenge for the pig production sector in affected countries. ASF also threatens the biodiversity conservation of several Asiatic wild Suidae. Since ASF was first introduced in Georgia in 2007, the disease has spread to many countries in Europe, Asia and the Pacific, and in 2021, it was detected in the Caribbean states of the Dominican Republic and Haiti, both in the Americas. In much of its Euro-Asiatic range, the African swine fever virus (ASFV) infects wild boar, which sometimes act as the main – if not the only – epidemiological reservoir of the infection, keeping it in the environment regardless of the presence of infected domestic pigs. The presence of the virus in wild boar populations is a continuous health threat for the sympatric domestic pig population, posing a challenge for veterinary and wildlife services that have had little success in attempting to eradicate infections among wildlife, especially in the absence of an effective vaccine. Finally, areas in which ASFV is detected in wild boar remain infected for at least one year after the last recorded case. This is a much longer period than that of domestic animals and puts a strain on the services involved, requiring a considerable amount of work and human and financial resources. The second edition of the handbook provides insights on surveillance and disease management in wild boar based on experiences with ASFV eradication in Belgium and Czechia, as well as other recent experiences in the prevention and control of the disease in wild boar in Europe.

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