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Why is artificial afforestation crucial for restoring nature? Studies on the dried bottom of Aral Sea, Kazakhstan

XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022









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    Article
    Increasing green cover and carbon accumulation through afforestation of salt affected areas in drylands of India
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    As part of its intended nationally determined contribution (INDC) to the Paris climate agreement 2015, India has committed to create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030. One of the strategies worked out towards this is to afforest about 2.98 million ha of salty wastelands in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab states of India. Trials were conducted on barren lithic, calcid, coarse sandy to loamy sand salt affected soil in Jodhpur (Rajasthan) and silty black highly saline soil in little Rann of kachchh (Gujarat). The approach was to grow salt tolerant species & use soil amendments. The indigenous multipurpose halophytic tree Salvadora persica maintained 66.7 to 85.2 % survival even after ten years. Gypsum + 9g N treatment gave 85.2 % survival and 12.0 & 5.67 kg tree-1 of fresh & dry biomass in arid sandy soils in Rajasthan while on black soil in Gujarat, wheat husk (WH)+FYM+urea treatment gave 90% survival and 7.17 & 3.71 kg tree -1 Green & dry biomass. A. bivenosa was more suitable with WH+FYM treatment on black soil. Acacia ampliceps (Australian tree) recorded 76 % survival on gypsum treated deep alkali soils (60 to 75 cm depth) and yielded twofold biomass (12.0 & 5.35 tree-1 to 5.43 & 2.14 kg tree-1 fresh & dry biomass for gypsum treated and 8.1 & 5.35 kg tree-1 to 3.9 & 1.56 kg tree-1 fresh & dry biomass for untreated trees on deeper and shallow soils) at five years of age. Natural regeneration of S. persica was also observed on sandy soil in Rajasthan, especially under Prosopis juliflora. Overall, significant improvement in site conditions improved and growth of indigenous vegetation was observed. Keywords: Sustainable forest management; Deforestation and forest degradation; Landscape management; Climate change; Economic Development ID: 3485327
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    Guidelines on the Implementation of Nature-based Solutions (NbS) to Combat the Negative Impact of Climate Change on Forestry
    Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Türkiye, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan
    2023
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    Climate change is one of the most critical social and environmental concerns and the biggest threat to economic stability in human history. Türkiye, Azerbaijan, and Central Asia countries, namely Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, are vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. Although average forest cover is only 10.2 percent of these countries (FAO-SEC countries), they play an essential role in climate change mitigation and adaptation, including human well-being and biodiversity co-benefits. The NbS concept has gained attention since the late 2000s. Its practical contribution to global climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts has found significant implementation opportunities in forestry to support the protection and conservation, restoration and expansion, and sustainable management of forests under the impact of climate change. Globally, implementing NbSs to combat the negative impact of climate change on forestry is promoted by the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Paris Agreement, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat), and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Regionally, implementing NbSs to combat the negative impacts of climate change on forestry has been included in the forest policy initiatives of the countries in the sub-region recently. As a result, governments have implemented NbSs through national strategies and programs to address societal challenges by enhancing ecosystem services and promoting human well-being and biodiversity co-benefits. For example, Azerbaijan has implemented afforestation, reforestation, rehabilitation, and restoration activities in forest fund lands on an average of 9 727 hectares (ha) annually since 2000. Kazakhstan aims to save the Aral Sea basin from salinity and improve soil fertility through afforestation activities of saxaul species on 0.25 million ha, and the afforestation area in the Aral Sea will be extended by 1 million ha till 2025. Kyrgyzstan has planned a 1,000-ha annual plantation program to expand protected natural areas to 10 percent. Tajikistan implements 2,000 ha of annual plantation activities to increase the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential through participatory forestry sector development. Türkiye implemented afforestation, soil conservation, forest rehabilitation, pasture rehabilitation, private afforestation, artificial regeneration, and establishment of energy forests activities on 9.62 million ha from 1946 to 2022. Turkmenistan conducts afforestation activities with drought-resistant plant species and established the "Golden Century Lake" in the Karakum Desert to improve the climate conditions and conserve biodiversity. Uzbekistan declared the Aral Sea region
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    Agroforestry and Soil Salinity Management in the Aral Sea Basin, Uzbekistan
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Land degradation caused by salinity is common in arid and semi-arid regions across the globe, where agriculture is difficult to sustain without a proper irrigation. On the other hand, secondary salinization, which is also caused by poor agricultural management, impacts enormous lands with varying degrees of soil salinity. In the Aral Sea Basin, increased soil salinity has resulted in widespread land damage. In general, Uzbekistan is one of the nations with a high proportion of salinized soil. Although the quantity of saline land varies, areas in the lower parts of the Amudarya river are the most salinized, accounting for more than 90% of all irrigated land. This discrepancy is attributed to the hydrogeological characteristics of downstream parts of the Amudarya river, particularly in Khorezm and Karakalpakstan, which are situated in low accumulative plains with poorly drained alluvial lowlands, making these places prone to salinization. Agroforestry is commonly a financially viable land-use option for the environmental rehabilitation of salinized cropping fields in irrigated drylands, but farm-level afforestation programs face a number of socio-political constraints. The results highlighted in the paper show that the importance of farmer risk perceptions in making choices regarding alternative land use adoption varies. Overall, the study enables the identification of policy incentives for afforestation that may have a direct influence on the decision-making of prospective stakeholders. It is clear from the review that there is an urgent need for better land-use flexibility, improved land tenure and tree plantation ownership security, more agroforestry knowledge and training, and increased institutional assistance especially in marginal environments. Keywords: salinity, agroforestry, Aral Sea, land use options, marginal environment ID: 3623974

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