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Lessons Learning from FAO’s Initiative on Soaring Food Prices in Zambia







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    Lessons Learning Exercise from FAO’s Initiative on Soaring Food Prices (ISFP)
    (TCP/NEP/3202 and OSRO/NEP/806/Cha)
    2010
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    In 2008, food prices reached their highest level in real terms in thirty years. This provoked social unrest, leading, in many cases, to short-sighted policy responses from governments, which further exacerbated instability in world markets. In response to the food crisis, FAO launched its Initiative on Soaring Food Prices in 2007. In 2008, it assisted member countries to put in place measures to rapidly boost production in the following agricultural seasons and to provide policy support to improve food access and reduce food insecurity in the most affected countries. The food price crisis hit hard the most vulnerable populations and as such required an immediate response. The ISFP focus was on the short term and the nature and the number of activities proposed were determined by this time frame. However, these interventions provided the basis for longer-term sustainable development of the sector. Learning from the support provided by FAO through the ISFP is vitally important, especially now that donors continue to show a special interest in short-term interventions to address food security issues. This new context represents a challenge for FAO and requires reflection on how best to respond quickly but in a sustainable way to underlying causes of food insecurity, as well as how to merge the efforts and different expertise of emergency and technical experts. Nepal was selected among the ISFP beneficiary countries for the first lessons learning exe rcise. The objective of this study was to show how this type of support could be improved and to highlight the strengths and best practices that could be replicated in the future. It looked at how ISFP activities in Nepal were implemented and how the expected outcomes had been achieved or not, rather than at the products/activities itself. The focus was on how ISFP programmes in Nepal were perceived by the different stakeholders involved as well as their experiences. The study’s main a ctivity was field work: direct and personal contact with people in the programme in their own environment.
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    Strengthening coherence between agriculture and social protection: Zambia country case study report 2015
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    This study forms part of seven country case studies carried out as part of the FAO’s From Protection to Production (PtoP) programme. Zambia was selected as one of the countries given the substantial role played by agriculture there with regard to employment and the economy, and the growing portfolio of social protection measures which have been implemented against a backdrop of persistently high levels of poverty. Of particular interest was the implicit sequencing of programmes from cash transfe rs, to the Food Security Pack and finally, one of the main agricultural programmes over the past decade – the Farmer Input Support Programme. The analysis in Zambia followed a common approach and framework set out as part of the country case studies. This involved looking at the context (including policies and programmes), coordination and outcomes. This was carried out through an initial desk-based review, which involved reviewing key documents covering development strategy, agricultural and so cial protection policy and research papers. This was followed by a two-week in-country data collection exercise involving a number of key informant interviews (KIIs) with ministry staff, cooperating partners and civil society and focus group discussions with local communities (FGDs). The study involved looking across both the agricultural and social protection spheres at the national and subnational levels.
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    Bioeconomic Analysis of the Kapenta Fisheries. Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe and Zambia
    GCP/RAF/466/EC SmartFish Project
    2012
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    FAO supports a joint management process and the development of fisheries on Lake Kariba between Zimbabwe and Zambia. The 4th Technical Consultation Meeting, held in Kariba in 2010, recommended the development of bioeconomic modelling of Kapenta fishery (Limnothrissa miodon). In support of this recommendation, a first field mission was conducted in November 2012 with the support of the SmartFish project. The objective of this mission was to meet with key stakeholders in the public and private sec tors involved in the Kapenta fishery in the two countries in order to:  inform them about the bioeconomic assessment exercise to be carried out on the Kapenta fishery;  underline the importance of their collaboration, in particular the provision of reliable data to fit the model;  find out more about the Kapenta fishery and current challenges;  gather key documents and information required for the bioeconomic modelling;  assess the quality of information requested for the bioeconomic modell ing and identify any gaps;  draft the Terms of Reference for National Consultants who will be responsible for the collection of additional information after the mission. Based on meetings with key officials in charge of the management of the fisheries and with leaders of fishing enterprises in the two countries, the main results of the mission indicate that:  The fishing capacities in the Kapenta fishery have greatly increased since the early 2000s, from approximately 600 rigs allowed on the l ake in 1999 to 1,098 in 2012 (5th Technical Consultation Meeting, 2012). There are also an unknown number of unregistered and unlicensed rigs (illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing);  The fishing effort, reported by the fishing companies, has subsequently increased dramatically (40 percent increase between 2000 and 2011);  The management system in the two countries is based on a licensing system and the payment of an annual fee for access to the fishery, as well as several technical mana gement measures (mesh size, zoning, and brief closures based on the lunar calendar). The industry is also obliged to record and transfer to the management authorities monthly data on their catch and fishing effort. In practice, it seems that there are no real access controls and poor enforcement of regulations. Thus, the fishery currently appears to be open and free for all.  4  The harvesting systems and the technical productivity of fleets in the two countries are relatively homogeneous. C atches per unit of effort have fallen by 35 to 50 percent since 2005;  Qualitative indicators based on the situation of fishing enterprises show that the Kapenta fishery is overfished and revenue from resources is widely dissipated;  Statistical data available on effort, catch and CPUE, as well as scientific knowledge on biological parameters of the Kapenta stock suggest that only a biological modelling based on a surplus production model (such as Schaeffer, Fox, etc.) is possible;  There is an important shortage of economic data on time series concerning ex- vessel prices, costs related to the activities of fishing enterprises, their investment, and their profitability. Consequently, the work of two national consultants to support this process will mainly be focused on the collection of economic data in order to estimate an average cost per unit of effort (night fished per rig) in each country and for each fishing zone. Key documents for the bioeconomic modelling were collected bef ore and during the mission (or just after). A complete list of these documents can be found in Annex C. These key documents and references will form the basis of bibliographical references for the modelling exercise. A questionnaire was developed to collect missing information for the bioeconomic modelling exercise (Annex E). This information was obtained from a field survey and from a sample of fishing companies of different sizes and operating in different fishing areas (Basin/Stratum) in the two countries. A sampling plan was made on the basis of data from the frame survey undertaken with FAO support in 2011. However, it is strongly suggested that this economic fieldwork will be conducted in close cooperation with those responsible for the Kapenta producer organizations in Zambia and Zimbabwe; on one hand for the selection of those companies to be interviewed and to facilitate contacts, and on the other hand, to ensure the quality of data to be collected and transmitted. Forthcoming steps for the continuation of the process leading to the bio economic modeling workshop were also defined, as well the format of the workshop.

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