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Agricultural Marketing in the Near East: Challenges and Policy Issues








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    Book (stand-alone)
    The market for non-traditional agricultural exports 2004
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    The last decade has witnessed a steady decline in the dollar values of many of the traditional agricultural export crops (TAEs) from developing countries and has highlighted the risks of depending upon a very narrow export base for foreign exchange earnings. Breaking the dependence upon the traditional primary commodities and diversifying into higher value or added value exports is not easy. This report provides an overview of the market for non-traditional agricultural exports (NTAEs). In parti cular, the report focuses upon the trends in international trade in these products, the trade and import policies of the major destination buyers, the extent of the “adding-up” problem for selected NTAEs, the lessons learned, and the prospects for developing niche markets for organic and fair trade NTAEs. The report provides detailed statistical data on trends in the export of NTAEs during the ten-year period 1992 to 2001, both in volume and value terms, analyses the contribution of develop ing countries and least-developed countries (LDCs) to trade in NTAEs and identifies the leading developing country exporters. Trade and import policies of the key destination countries for NTAEs: the European Union, the United States and Japan are examined. Trade barriers such as tariffs and other import measures, including the complex area of phytosanitary controls, are examined and the impact of tariff liberalization, tariff escalation and the extent of tariff preferences for developing countr y exporters of NTAEs are discussed.
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    Booklet
    Addressing food security challenges faced by Near East and North Africa region due to the Ukraine crisis
    Regional overview
    2022
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    The Russian Federation and Ukraine are among the most important producers of agricultural commodities in the world. Both countries are net exporters of agricultural products, and they both play leading supply roles in global markets of foodstuffs and fertilizers, where exportable supplies are often concentrated in a handful of countries. This concentration could expose these markets to increased vulnerability to shocks and volatility. Many countries of the NENA region are heavily dependent on imported foodstuff and fertilizers from Russia and Ukraine; and thus, the current conflict puts the region at risk of shortening of food supply from Russia and Ukraine as well as raising food prices as a result of the disturbances in post-COVID-19.
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    Document
    Food and agriculture policy decisions - Trends, emerging issues and policy alignments since the 2007/08 food security crisis 2013
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    The report reviews a broad range of food security and agricultural development policy decisions implemented over the period 2007 to 2012 in more than 70 countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean. Selected policy decisions were analysed following FAPDA’s classification, dividing policy decisions into three main categories: producer-oriented policies, consumer-oriented policies, as well as trade-oriented and macroeconomic policies. Policy decisions reviewed included those most deb ated and most frequently implemented since the 2007/08 food price crisis. The report finds that the initial responses to the crisis tended to address immediate food security concerns with short-term, ad-hoc measures. Over the following years however, policy decisions reflected a more long-term and institutionalized approach. Governments are gradually moving from universal subsidies for food and fuel towards more targeted interventions to reach vulnerable and food insecure households. Moreo ver, a growing number of countries have shifted from short-term, ad-hoc cash or food-based interventions towards mainstreaming and institutionalizing social safety net programmes. The initial trade response was to ban or restrict exports and increase imports in efforts to achieve domestic food availability, measures which have since relaxed in support of producers. Also, Countries are increasingly establishing public food reserves to protect domestic supply in times of crisis. We also see a high degree of policy integration at the national level. However, protective trade policies at national levels have contradicted the efforts of regional food security and policy harmonization advocated by many regional economic communities.

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