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Risk-based disease surveillance

A manual for veterinarians on the design and analysis of surveillance for demonstration of freedom from disease












FAO. 2014. Risk-based disease surveillance – A manual for veterinarians on the design and analysis of surveillance for demonstration of freedom from disease. FAO Animal Production and Health Manual No. 17. Rome, Italy.



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    Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus, a mosquito-borne zoonotic agent, causes haemorrhagic fever in humans, and abortion and neonatal death in livestock. Outbreaks have caused national meat markets to collapse and have in the past caused regional trade embargoes. The geography of infection and clinical disease is expanding. Climate change is expected to accelerate this spread. The known geographic range of the virus is already larger than the areas where clinical disease has been observed. Effective surveillance is essential to mitigate the impact of RVF on lives, livelihoods and national economies. The RVF Surveillance Manual provides risk-based guidance for designing, planning and implementing effective participatory and syndromic surveillance. It builds on approaches outlined in the OIE Guide to Terrestrial Animal Health Surveillance and the RVF Decision Support Framework. It shows you how to tailor this guidance to the epidemiological needs of individual countries, starting with setting appropriate objectives. RVF surveillance objectives need to be in line with the country’s risk category and economic goals. Selecting the most appropriate indicators and methods for the situation follows easily from these goals and objectives. The manual is not prescriptive. Instead, it suggests questions to help you build a timely and sensitive surveillance system suited to national objectives and resources
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    Brucellosis remains a major source of disease in domesticated animals, wildlife and humans. Although reported incidence and prevalence of the disease vary widely from country to country, bovine brucellosis caused mainly by Brucella. abortus is still the most widespread form. In sheep, goats and humans, brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis is by far the most important clinically apparent disease. Brucellosis is still a major disease problem in the Mediterranean region, western Asia, parts of Africa and Latin America. The zoonotic significance of Brucellosis requires concerted efforts at control through intersectoral collaboration between the Ministiries of Agriculture and Health. Such collaboration will depend to a large extent on the availabilty of science based information collected through efficient surveillance systems for the purpose of designing practical and feasible control strategies to reduce prevalence of the disease and where feasible, eradicate it. These guidelines ha ve been prepared with that aim. They have been developed by reviewing programmes in countries that have successfully controlled and eradicated Brucellosis as well as those countries in which the disease is still endemic. In using these giudelines for human and animal brucellosis surveillance it must be emphasised, that what has been successful in one country may not necessarily be successful in another based on factors such as level of control of animal movement and socio-cultural practices and habits. It is therefore suggested that these guidlines be modified to suit prevailing local conditions and animal management systems.
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    Investing in One Health – cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary coordination and collaboration across the human health, animal health, and environmental health sectors – is crucial for maintaining healthy agricultural and food systems and addressing global health security risks. Such action can reduce the threat of future pandemics through upstream preventive actions, early detection, and agile responses to zoonotic and emerging infectious diseases outbreaks, coupled with measures for promoting food safety, includinganti-microbial resistance. This regional review, conducted jointly by the World Bank and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, assesses the socioeconomic impacts of zoonotic diseases and epidemics across the East Asia and Pacific region, providing a background on why emerging infectious diseases are occurring more frequently in this region. This review looks at the benefits of using a risk-based approach, assesses the management of animal and wildlife health and the ability to identify and respond to emerging threats and protect the health, agricultural production, and ecosystem services. It provides recommendations on priority activities to be undertaken, and offers governments and their development partners the evidence and analysis needed to make more and better investments in wildlife systems and animal health to improve global health security.

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