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Isolation of DNA from preserved woods for identification of wood species through genetic analysis regardless of the age of wood production

XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022










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    Combating Illegal Timber Trade in India
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Illegal wood logging and timber trade have become serious threats to forests, raising concerns of deforestation and climate change. Various international laws and regulations have been enacted to ensure global forest protection and sustainable use of forest products. Based on the extent of protection required for the species, CITES has published a species list to be used by foresters and officials for imposing trade regulations and restrictions. India is one of the largest importers of timber, especially tropical hardwoods. Efforts to curb illegal wood trading in India are gaining momentum that requires scientific inputs. Globally, wood anatomy, DNA barcoding, mass spectrometry, near-infrared spectroscopy, stable isotopes and radiocarbon are the main methods employed for timber testing. Wood anatomy is the most efficient and cost effective tool for wood identification. It has the potential of becoming field deployable, unlike other laboratory based methods. Wood identification can be done both microscopically and macroscopically. In India, macroscopic features are usually studied using a hand lens, but this method is not always reliable for correct identification. In most scenarios, the sample would require anatomical testing in the laboratories, which is a time-consuming and tedious process. In various countries, development of systems like Xylotron and MyWood-id has made macroscopic wood identification fast and easily accessible. These tools are effective in identifying timber species upto family or genus level. India and other countries can employ these systems and train their field personnels to identify wood on the spot. This would require improved hardwares for enhanced images and wood database softwares of major traded timbers. The paper explores the areas that can be improved to combat the illegal wood logging and trading in India Keywords: Illegal trade, Deforestation and forest degradation, Sustainable forest management, Governance, Value chain ID: 3623925
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    Fish identification tools for biodiversity and fisheries assessments
    Review and guidance for decision-makers
    2013
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    This review provides an appraisal of existing, state-of-the-art fish identification (ID) tools (including some in the initial stages of their development) and shows their potential for providing the right solution in different real-life situations. The ID tools reviewed are: Use of scientific experts (taxonomists) and folk local experts, taxonomic reference collections, image recognition systems, field guides based on dichotomous keys; interactive electronic keys (e.g. IPOFIS), morphometrics (e. g. IPez), scale and otolith morphology, genetic methods (Single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] and Barcode [BOL]) and Hydroacoustics. The review is based on the results and recommendations of the workshop "Fish Identification Tools for Fishery Biodiversity and Fisheries Assessments"�, convened by FAO FishFinder and the University of Vigo and held in Vigo, Spain, from 11 to 13 October 2011. It is expected that it will help fisheries managers, environmental administrators and other end users to select the best available species identification tools for their purposes.
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    Wood transcriptome analysis of Pinus densiflora identifies genes critical for secondary cell wall formation and NAC transcription factors involved in tracheid formation
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Although conifers have significant ecological and economic value, information on transcriptional regulation of wood formation in conifers is still limited. Here, to gain insight into secondary cell wall (SCW) biosynthesis and tracheid formation in conifers, we performed wood tissue-specific transcriptome analyses of Pinus densiflora (Korean red pine) using RNA sequencing. In addition, to obtain full-length transcriptome information, PacBio single molecule real-time (SMRT) iso-sequencing was carried out using RNAs from 28 tissues of P. densiflora. Subsequent comparative tissue-specific transcriptome analysis successfully pinpointed critical genes encoding key proteins involved in biosynthesis of the major secondary wall components (cellulose, galactoglucomannan, xylan, and lignin). Furthermore, we predicted a total of 62 NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) family transcription factor members and identified seven PdeNAC genes preferentially expressed in developing xylem tissues in P. densiflora. Protoplast-based transcriptional activation analysis found that four PdeNAC genes, homologous to VND, NST and SND/ANAC075, upregulated GUS activity driven by an SCW-specific cellulose synthase promoter. Consistently, transient overexpression of the four PdeNACs induced xylem vessel cell-like SCW deposition in both tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) and Arabidopsis leaves. Taken together, our data provide a foundation for further research to unravel transcriptional regulation of wood formation in conifers, especially SCW formation and tracheid differentiation. Keywords: Research, Genetic resources ID: 3622610

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