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Citric and Fatty Acid Esters of Glycerol

Residue Monograph prepared by the meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), 82nd meeting 2016









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    Citric and Fatty Acid Esters of Glycerol
    Residue Monograph prepared by the meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), 82nd meeting 2016
    2016
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    Obtained by esterification of glycerol with citric acid and edible fatty acids, or by reaction of a mixture of mono- and diglycerides of edible fatty acid, with citric acid; consists of mixed esters of citric acid and edible fatty acids with glycerol; may contain minor parts of free fatty acids, free glycerol, free citric acid and mono- and diglycerides; may be wholly or partially neutralized with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide (as declared on the label).
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    Lutein Esters from Tagetes Erecta
    Residue Monograph prepared by the meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), 82nd meeting 2016
    2016
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    Lutein esters from Tagetes erecta is obtained by solvent extraction of dried petals of Tagetes erecta L., further purification and subsequent removal of solvents under vacuum. Lutein diesters account for the major part and a smaller proportion of zeaxanthin diesters is also present. The esters contain saturated long chain fatty acids, such as myristic, palmitic and stearic acid in various proportions with palmitic acid being a major component. Waxes naturally occurring in the source material may also be present. Only the following solvents may be used in the production: methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, hexane, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone and carbon dioxide. Usually food grade antioxidants are added to stabilize the product. Products of commerce are normally further formulated e.g. in order to standardize colour content or to obtain water soluble/dispersible products.
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    Phosphated Distarch Phosphate (Tentative)
    Residue Monograph prepared by the meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), 82nd meeting 2016
    2016
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    Starch is a carbohydrate polymer consisting of a large number of glucose units linked together primarily by alpha 1-4 glucosidic bonds. The starch polymers come in two forms: linear (amylose) and branched through alpha 1-6 glucosidic bonds (amylopectin), with each glucose unit possessing a maximum of three hydroxyls that can undergo chemical substitution. Phosphated distarch phosphate is a modified starch. It is obtained by esterification/cross-linking of food starch with sodium trimetaphosphate or phosphorus oxychloride combined with esterification with ortho-phosphoric acid, or sodium or potassium ortho-phosphate, or sodium tripolyphosphate, in accordance with good manufacturing practice. The esterification results in partial substitution in the 2, 3- or 6- position of the anhydroglucose unit unless the 6-position is occupied for branching. In the case of cross-linking, where a polyfunctional substituting agent, such as phosphorus oxychloride, connects two chains, the structure can b e represented by: Starch-O-R-O-Starch, where R = cross-linking group and Starch refers to the linear and/or branched structure.

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